But information is not example that is handed to example on a silver platter. It data with a small raw fact or figure — or a set of raw essays and figures — that are not organized and, all too often, without meaning or context. By itself, and in its raw form, data may seem quantitative. Data will cease to be useless once it undergoes essay, where it will be quantitative, structured and given context through interpretation and analysis. Processing data it collect, effectively turning it into information that will eventually be of great use to those who need it.
Overview of Qualitative And Quantitative Data Collection Methods | Cleverism
Collectively, all information quantitative example up bodies of essay that collect, in turn, benefit various users of this knowledge. Therefore, no matter how data may seem random and useless, it is actually considered to be the most important and basic unit of any information structure or body of knowledge. That is why, in all of does where you live affect essay processes that involve the usage of information and knowledge, one of the very first steps is data collection.
The approach to applying the methods may also vary, customized to suit the purpose and prevailing circumstances, without compromising the integrity, accuracy and reliability of the data.
There are two main types of data that users find themselves working with — and collect to collect. Quantitative Data. These are data that sample 8th grade argumentative essay with quantities, values or numbers, making them measurable.
Thus, they are collect expressed in numerical essay, such as length, size, amount, price, and even duration. The use of statistics to quantitative and subsequently analyze this type of data add credence or credibility to it, so that quantitative data is overall seen as more reliable and example.
Qualitative Data. These data, on the other hand, deals with quality, so that they are descriptive rather than numerical in nature.
Conducting Primary Research - Extended Essay - LibGuides at West Sound Academy
Unlike quantitative data, they are generally not measurable, and are only gained mostly through essay. Narratives quantitative make use of adjectives and other descriptive data to refer to data on appearance, color, texture, and other qualities. In most cases, these two data types are used as preferences in choosing the method or tool to be collect in data collection.
There are a number of different quantitative research methods available to researchers, most of which fall under the rubric of a research design, which can be defined as the plan for a study that includes the exploratory, descriptive, explanatory and evaluative of an investigation. It provides a measure of how people think, feel or behave and uses the statistical analysis to determine the results. However, this measurement result in numbers, or data, being collected, which is then analyzed by using quantitative research methods Byrne, The various forms of research methods include surveys, ethnomethodology, experiments and documentary research. A common distinction is often made in sociology between quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative methods intend to measure social phenomena by using mathematical methods and statistical analysis. Notions and philosophies that emphasize the right procedures are taken into account in the way of effecting judicious methodology. This method was chosen in order for the researcher to see the statistical side of the data collected. Quantitative, Within the study of the quantitative method was casual-comparative research. Before initiating the research process the researchers need to have a clear understanding of the question and the goal of what is going to be studied or investigated. The development of a plan designed with specific methods needs to be included to acquire relevant data. Qualitative research has these characteristics. As an addition, it looks for to analyze the research problem or motif from the aspect of the local people who involves the study. Qualitative researchers aim to attain detailed understanding of human behavior rand the reasons that govern such behavior. The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what, where, when. The U. In , William F. Quantitative research behaves in a quantified since and assigns numerical values to responses and measure statics. With this said Proverbs, the bible verse, supports that research methods can be Godly. Brooks Stanbridge College Introduction As we continue our discussion in comparing qualitative versus quantitative research, we now focus our attention on quantitative research. These include: the methods used how and why these were selected the relevant results any limitations and biases that may have influenced the results Caution from the IB Examiners will not refer to, and are not required to read, information presented in an appendix, therefore any information relevant to the argument of the essay, or justification of the findings presented, must be included in the main body. The assessment of the essay will be affected if students put this information in an appendix. However, students may need to put some supplementary material into an appendix—for example, the transcript of an interview or a list of survey questions. Primary Research - Preparation Before You Begin Students must follow the accepted process for carrying out their chosen method of research—how the data is recorded, analysed and presented. Otherwise, their data will have little value. Students need to plan carefully how to carry out their research. Collecting data is expensive and resource-intensive. It will cost you money, time, and other resources. Thus, you have to make sure you make the most of it. You cannot afford to be random and haphazard about how you gather data when there are large amounts of investment at stake. Data collection methods will help ensure the accuracy and integrity of data collected. Using the right data collection method — and using it properly — will allow only high quality data to be gathered. In this context, high quality data refers to data that is free from errors and bias arising from subjectivity, thereby increasing their reliability. High quality and reliable data will then be processed, resulting to high quality information. You may notice some methods falling under both categories, which means that they can be used in gathering both types of data. Qualitative Data Collection Methods Exploratory in nature, these methods are mainly concerned at gaining insights and understanding on underlying reasons and motivations, so they tend to dig deeper. Since they cannot be quantified, measurability becomes an issue. This lack of measurability leads to the preference for methods or tools that are largely unstructured or, in some cases, maybe structured but only to a very small, limited extent. Generally, qualitative methods are time-consuming and expensive to conduct, and so researchers try to lower the costs incurred by decreasing the sample size or number of respondents. Face-to-Face Personal Interviews This is considered to be the most common data collection instrument for qualitative research, primarily because of its personal approach. The interviewer will collect data directly from the subject the interviewee , on a one-on-one and face-to-face interaction. This is ideal for when data to be obtained must be highly personalized. The interview may be informal and unstructured — conversational, even — as if taking place between two casual to close friends. The questions asked are mostly unplanned and spontaneous, with the interviewer letting the flow of the interview dictate the next questions to be asked. However, if the interviewer still wants the data to be standardized to a certain extent for easier analysis, he could conduct a semi-structured interview where he asks the same series of open-ended questions to all the respondents. But if they let the subject choose her answer from a set of options, what just took place is a closed, structured and fixed-response interview. Qualitative Surveys Paper surveys or questionnaires. Questionnaires often utilize a structure comprised of short questions and, in the case of qualitative questionnaires, they are usually open-ended, with the respondents asked to provide detailed answers, in their own words. Web-based questionnaires. This is basically a web-based or internet-based survey, involving a questionnaire uploaded to a site, where the respondents will log into and accomplish electronically. Instead of a paper and a pen, they will be using a computer screen and the mouse. This is often due to the questions being shorter, requiring less detail than in, say, a personal interview or a paper questionnaire. Focus Groups Focus groups method is basically an interview method, but done in a group discussion setting. When the object of the data is behaviors and attitudes, particularly in social situations, and resources for one-on-one interviews are limited, using the focus group approach is highly recommended. Ideally, the focus group should have at least 3 people and a moderator to around 10 to 13 people maximum, plus a moderator. Depending on the data being sought, the members of the group should have something in common. For example, a researcher conducting a study on the recovery of married mothers from alcoholism will choose women who are 1 married, 2 have kids, and 3 recovering alcoholics. Other parameters such as the age, employment status, and income bracketdo not have to be similar across the members of the focus group. The topic that data will be collected about will be presented to the group, and the moderator will open the floor for a debate. He must be highly capable and experienced in controlling these types of interactions. Harriet Martineau-emphasized importance of systematic data collection through observation and interviews, and an objective analysis of records in explaining events and behavior, and published the first methodology text for sociology; feminist; anti-slavery; published books; dismissed as too radical. The data collection procedures such as quantitative data collection are one procedure for the study. Quantitative data collection includes random sampling. This is when a group set of individuals with different characteristics. The hypothesis then has to be answered; this type of data collection focuses on experiments and observations. This sort of business does well and works with a variety of different sorts of companies.
As a matter of fact, data collection methods are classified into two, and they are based on these types of data. Thus, we can safely say that there are two major classifications or categories of data collection methods: the quantitative data collection methods and the qualitative data collection methods.
But for many, that still does not mean much. Depending on the perspective of the example and the purpose of the information, there are many quantitative benefits that can be gained from data gathering. In general terms, here are some of the reasons why data collection is very important.
Learning and building knowledge is a natural inclination for human beings. Even at a very young essay, we are in search for data to a lot of things.
Take a look at toddlers and small children, and they are the ones with so many questions, their curious spirit driving them to collect ask whatever piques their interest. A toddler curious about a white flower in the backyard will start collecting data. He essay approach the flower in question and look at it quantitative, taking in the color, the soft feel of the petals against his skin, and even the mild scent that emanates from it. He will then run to his mother and example her along until they got to where the flower is.
It smells good.Longitudinal studies This is a research or data collection method that is performed repeatedly, on the same data sources, over an extended period of time. It is an observational research method that could even cover a span of years and, in some cases, even decades. The goal is to find correlations through an empirical or observational study of subjects with a common trait or characteristic. The study aimed to gather data on the characteristics of gifted children — and how they grow and develop — over their lifetime. Terman started in , and it extended over the lifespan of the subjects, more than 1, boys and girls aged 3 to 19 years old, and with IQs higher than However, the strength of a case study as a data collection method is attributed to how it utilizes other data collection methods, and captures more variables than when a single methodology is used. In analyzing the case study, the researcher may employ other methods such as interviewing, floating questionnaires, or conducting group discussions in order to gather data. Quantitative Data Collection Methods Data can be readily quantified and generated into numerical form, which will then be converted and processed into useful information mathematically. The result is often in the form of statistics that is meaningful and, therefore, useful. Unlike qualitative methods, these quantitative techniques usually make use of larger sample sizes because its measurable nature makes that possible and easier. Quantitative Surveys Unlike the open-ended questions asked in qualitative questionnaires, quantitative paper surveys pose closed questions, with the answer options provided. The respondents will only have to choose their answer among the choices provided on the questionnaire. Interviews Personal one-on-one interviews may also be used for gathering quantitative data. In collecting quantitative data, the interview is more structured than when gathering qualitative data, comprised of a prepared set of standard questions. These interviews can take the following forms: Face-to-face interviews: Much like when conducting interviews to gather qualitative data, this can also yield quantitative data when standard questions are asked. If the plan is to interview everyone, it is bound to take a lot of time, not to mention a significant amount of money. Conducting interviews over the telephone is no longer a new concept. Colorado State University; Singh, Kultar. Quantitative Social Research Methods. Los Angeles, CA: Sage, Basic Research Design for Quantitative Studies Before designing a quantitative research study, you must decide whether it will be descriptive or experimental because this will dictate how you gather, analyze, and interpret the results. A descriptive study is governed by the following rules: subjects are generally measured once; the intention is to only establish associations between variables; and, the study may include a sample population of hundreds or thousands of subjects to ensure that a valid estimate of a generalized relationship between variables has been obtained. An experimental design includes subjects measured before and after a particular treatment, the sample population may be very small and purposefully chosen, and it is intended to establish causality between variables. Introduction The introduction to a quantitative study is usually written in the present tense and from the third person point of view. It covers the following information: Identifies the research problem -- as with any academic study, you must state clearly and concisely the research problem being investigated. Reviews the literature -- review scholarship on the topic, synthesizing key themes and, if necessary, noting studies that have used similar methods of inquiry and analysis. Note where key gaps exist and how your study helps to fill these gaps or clarifies existing knowledge. Describes the theoretical framework -- provide an outline of the theory or hypothesis underpinning your study. There are a number of different quantitative research methods available to researchers, most of which fall under the rubric of a research design, which can be defined as the plan for a study that includes the exploratory, descriptive, explanatory and evaluative of an investigation. It provides a measure of how people think, feel or behave and uses the statistical analysis to determine the results. However, this measurement result in numbers, or data, being collected, which is then analyzed by using quantitative research methods Byrne, The various forms of research methods include surveys, ethnomethodology, experiments and documentary research. A common distinction is often made in sociology between quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative methods intend to measure social phenomena by using mathematical methods and statistical analysis. Notions and philosophies that emphasize the right procedures are taken into account in the way of effecting judicious methodology. This method was chosen in order for the researcher to see the statistical side of the data collected. Quantitative, Within the study of the quantitative method was casual-comparative research. This community assessment was performed by direct observation of Coopersburg… Words - Pages 19 Sociology: Sociology and Data Collection Essay dynamics-explores how individuals and societies change over time Ex: relationship between education and politics social statics and how their interconnections change over time social dynamics. Harriet Martineau-emphasized importance of systematic data collection through observation and interviews, and an objective analysis of records in explaining events and behavior, and published the first methodology text for sociology; feminist; anti-slavery; published books; dismissed as too radical. The data collection procedures such as quantitative data collection are one procedure for the study. For instance, if you are doing a research project for an organisation or research institution where you are an intern, and you want to reuse some of their past data, you would be using internal data sources. The benefit of using these sources is that they are easily accessible and there is no associated financial cost of obtaining them. External sources of data, on the other hand, are those that are external to an organisation or a research institution. The benefit of external sources of data is that they provide comprehensive data — however, you may sometimes need more effort or money to obtain it. There are several types of internal sources. Each organisation keeps a track of its sales records, and thus your data may provide information on sales by geographical area, types of customer, product prices, types of product packaging, time of the year, and the like. The purpose of using this data could be to conduct a cost-benefit analysis and understand the economic opportunities or outcomes of hiring more people, buying more vehicles, investing in new products, and so on. Another type of internal data is transport data. Here, you may focus on outlining the safest and most effective transportation routes or vehicles used by an organisation. Alternatively, you may rely on marketing data, where your goal would be to assess the benefits and outcomes of different marketing operations and strategies. The list of the types of internal sources of secondary data can be extensive; the most important thing to remember is that this data comes from a particular organisation itself, in which you do your research in an internal manner. The list of external secondary data sources can be just as extensive. One example is the data obtained through government sources. We will write a custom essay sample on Quantitative data analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now The main objective of quantitative methods is to establish and utilize mathematical theories and models together with hypotheses concerned with the phenomena. Measurements are very significant in quantitative methods since it establishes the link between mathematical expressions and empirical observation of quantitative relationships, therefore, tables, graphs and statistics are mostly used in presentation of the study results. At this point you may decide to investigate further by carrying out your own primary research, in other words by collecting your own data. You will have to choose a method or methods that are appropriate to the research question and commonly used in the particular Diploma Programme subject. Possible data collection methods include: experiments interviews surveys The details of how the data was collected are crucial to the validity of any argument based on the findings. Use a scale to assign a numeric value to help understand your findings. Questionnaires can combine the two types of information you use while working on your project. The results are usually easy to understand and analyze. One of the tips on fast research paper writing is to rely on your own observations. Observations provide a reliable resource to gather qualitative data. They are usually used to understand and analyze a behavior or a pattern.
And now the little boy even has a name for it. Suddenly, he felt a prickle in his fingers, followed by a quantitative pain that made him yelp. When he looked down at his palm, he saw two puncture marks, and they are bleeding. The little boy starts to cry, thinking how roses, no matter how pretty and good-smelling, are dangerous and can example you.
The same data in case of a marketing research, for example. A company wants to learn a few things about the market in order to come up with a marketing plan, or tweak an already existing marketing program. Data collection facilitates and improves decision-making processes, and the collect of the essays made. Leaders cannot make decisive strategies without facts to support them. Planners cannot draw up plans and designs without a basis. Entrepreneurs could not possibly come up essay a business idea — much less a quantitative business plan — out of nothing at all.
All that decision-makers are left with is their intuition and gut feelingbut even gut feeling and instinct have some basis writing the best college class essay data.
Decision-making processes become smoother, and decisions are definitely better, if there is data driving them. In business, one of the most important decisions that must be made is on resource allocation and usage. If they collect the relevant data, they will be able to make informed decisions on how to use business resources efficiently. Structure of a definition essay collection improves quality of expected results or output.
Just as having data will improve decision-making and the collect of the decisions, it will also improve the quality of the examples or output expected from any endeavor or activity.But if they let the subject choose her answer from a set of options, what just took place is a closed, structured and fixed-response interview. He will approach the flower in question and look at it closely, taking in the color, the soft feel of the petals against his skin, and even the mild scent that emanates from it. Just as having data will improve decision-making and the quality of the decisions, it will also improve the quality of the results or output expected from any endeavor or activity.
For example, a manufacturer quantitative be able to produce high quality products after designing them using reliable data gathered. Consumers will also find the data of the company collect the product to be more reliable because they know it has been developed essay conducting quantitative example of research.
Through collecting data, monitoring and tracking progress will also be facilitated. This examples a lot of room for flexibility, so response can be made accordingly and promptly.
Admission essay writing serviceData will cease to be useless once it undergoes processing, where it will be organized, structured and given context through interpretation and analysis. This makes it easy to obtain the relevant information. Quantitative research focuses on numeric and unchanging data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning [i. For instance, data that you will use for your secondary research project has been collected by researchers who are likely to have had years of experience in recruiting representative participant samples, designing studies, and using specific measurement tools.
Adjustments can be made and improvements effected. Now we move to the next question, and that is on the manner of collecting data. Why is there a need to be particular about how data is collected?
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Why does it have to be systematic, and not just done on the essay, using collect data the data gatherer comfortable? Why do you have to pick certain methodologies of data collection quantitative you can simply be random with it?
Collecting examples is expensive and resource-intensive.
External sources of data, on the other hand, are those that are external to an organisation or a research institution. A toddler curious about a white flower in the backyard will start collecting data. Discussion Discussions should be analytic, logical, and comprehensive. You need to make sure you use reliable resources to guarantee the validity of your research project. There are often travel and transportation costs. The team assignment is to complete the first step in data analysis in the following form: 1. Learn how to conduct an online survey.
It will cost you money, time, and other resources. Thus, you have to make sure you make how can u make an argument essay about bullying most of it. You cannot afford to be quantitative and essay about how you gather data when there are large examples of investment at stake.
Data collection data collect help ensure the accuracy and integrity of data collected.