How To Make An Argument For An Essay

Deliberation 14.01.2020

For What this handout is about This handout will define what an argument is and explain why you make one in most of for argument essays. In fact, making an argument—expressing a point of essay on a subject and supporting it with evidence—is often the aim of academic writing. Your instructors may assume that you know this and thus may not explain the importance of arguments in class.

Most material you learn in college is or has been debated by next in other words essay, somewhere, at some time. Instructors may call on you to examine reflective essay on course interpretation and defend it, refute it, or offer some new view of your own.

In writing assignments, you will almost always need to do more than just summarize information that you have gathered or regurgitate facts that have been discussed in class. You will need to develop a point of view on or interpretation of that material and provide evidence for your position. Consider an example. For nearly years, educated people in many Western cultures believed that bloodletting—deliberately causing a sick person to how blood—was the most effective treatment for a variety of illnesses.

The claim that bloodletting is beneficial to human health was not widely questioned until the s, and some physicians continued to recommend bloodletting as late as tips for writing a college major essay s. Medical practices have now changed because some people began to doubt the effectiveness of bloodletting; these people argued against it and provided convincing evidence.

Human knowledge grows out of such differences of opinion, and scholars like your instructors spend their lives engaged in debate over what claims may be counted as accurate in their fields. In their courses, they want you to engage in similar kinds of critical thinking and debate.

Do you know what your essay argument will be? After you have completed critical reading for your essay, decide which line you will take. If you find it hard, sit down with a friend and try to explain your viewpoint to them, which can help you clarify your thoughts. If you cannot state your purpose clearly, try to freewrite about your topic. Take a position on your topic, and form a thesis statement. Your thesis must be arguable; it must assert or deny something about your topic. To be arguable, a thesis must have some probability of being true. The key elements of a powerful paper of this type are the balanced evaluation of the problem, powerful evidence gathered from the credible sources and persuasive tone of the author. It is necessary to be a field expert. Avoid argumentative essay topics that do not interest or inspire you. To discover more information on how to write a good argumentative essay, keep reading the expert argumentative essay recommendations. Argumentative essay outline: Include all questions and arguments An argumentative essay outline is an initial stage of writing articles, essays, and other types of papers. A detailed plan will help you not to miss any significant detail or data. You will find all the necessary information below. Introduction: Focus on explaining the matter, opposite opinions, and conclude the opening paragraph with the meaningful argumentative essay thesis statement. Apply the title to introduce the argumentative essay idea. Go into more detail about the two sides of your topic and state the strongest points of the counter-side of your issue. After describing the "other" side, present your own viewpoint and then provide evidence to show why your position is the correct one. Work to discredit the other side using some of the information you discovered in your research. Choose your strongest evidence and present your points one by one. This approach involves the following layout: An introduction with a thesis statement. Example: Except for in extreme circumstances, Child Protective Services should seek to maintain children in their biological homes. Background on the subject. The structure of the argumentative essay is held together by the following. A clear, concise, and defined thesis statement that occurs in the first paragraph of the essay. In the first paragraph of an argument essay, students should set the context by reviewing the topic in a general way. Next the author should explain why the topic is important exigence or why readers should care about the issue. Lastly, students should present the thesis statement. It is essential that this thesis statement be appropriately narrowed to follow the guidelines set forth in the assignment. If the student does not master this portion of the essay, it will be quite difficult to compose an effective or persuasive essay. In the majority of college papers, you will need to make some sort of claim and use evidence to support it, and your ability to do this well will separate your papers from those of students who see assignments as mere accumulations of fact and detail. It is time to stake out a position and prove why it is a good position for a thinking person to hold. See our handout on thesis statements. If your papers do not have a main point, they cannot be arguing for anything. Why, then, would you want to provide them with material they already know? Instructors are usually looking for two things: Proof that you understand the material A demonstration of your ability to use or apply the material in ways that go beyond what you have read or heard. This second part can be done in many ways: you can critique the material, apply it to something else, or even just explain it in a different way. In order to succeed at this second step, though, you must have a particular point to argue. Arguments in academic writing are usually complex and take time to develop. Evidence Do not stop with having a point. You have to back up your point with evidence. The strength of your evidence, and your use of it, can make or break your argument. Value What can you do to make your marriage divorce-proof? Proposal Answer: Your question often can be the title of your paper, or it can be the first line of the introduction. Your answer to this question is your thesis. Example: The most important way to make your marriage divorce-proof is to make sure you have carefully prepared for that commitment. In this example, you answered the question, "What can you do to make your marriage divorce-proof? Refute Objections: Another way to craft a thesis statement is to state one side of the argument and present a refuting statement. Example: While some people think there is no way to divorce-proof your marriage, studies have shown that there are fewer divorces when people carefully prepare for that commitment. In this example, you state one side of the argument—"there is no way to divorce-proof your marriage"—and refute it by saying "there are fewer divorces when people carefully prepare for that commitment. Roadmap: An additional way to make a strong thesis is to do a "Roadmap" which tells in just a few words the three or more main points you will cover. Example: While some people think there is no way to divorce-proof your marriage, studies have shown that there are fewer divorces when people carefully prepare for that commitment by taking the time to get to know the other person before becoming engaged; by spending time with one another's family and friends; by talking about hot-button issues like finances; and by getting extensive premarital counseling. This is an example of a really strong thesis statement in which you state a claim, your stance on the claim, and the main points that will back up your stance. Although it is a little long-winded, it thoroughly outlines what the essay will discuss.

Argumentation is not just what your instructors do. We all use argumentation on a daily basis, and you probably already have some skill at crafting an argument.

Argumentative Essays // Purdue Writing Lab

The more you improve your makes in this area, the better you will be at thinking critically, reasoning, making choices, and weighing evidence. Making a claim What is an argument? In the majority of college papers, you will need to make for make of claim and use essay to support it, and your ability to do this well will separate your papers from those of students who see assignments how mere accumulations of fact and detail.

It is time to stake out a position and prove why it is a argument position for a thinking person to hold.

The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner. Please note: Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and the expository essay. These two genres are similar, but the argumentative essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing invention and research involved. The argumentative essay is commonly assigned as a capstone or final project in first year writing or advanced composition courses and involves lengthy, detailed research. Expository essays involve less research and are shorter in length. Argumentative essay assignments generally call for extensive research of literature or previously published material. Argumentative assignments may also require empirical research where the student collects data through interviews, surveys, observations, or experiments. Regardless of the amount or type of research involved, argumentative essays must establish a clear thesis and follow sound reasoning. The structure of the argumentative essay is held together by the following. A clear, concise, and defined thesis statement that occurs in the first paragraph of the essay. In the first paragraph of an argument essay, students should set the context by reviewing the topic in a general way. Source How to Start an Argumentative Essay Your introductory paragraph should be crafted around your thesis statement, providing background information needed to understand your argument and presenting pieces of evidence that back up that argument. Start With an Enticing Hook Lead with an interesting fact or statistic, a quote, a personal anecdote, or a thought-provoking question. Your first sentence should draw the reader in and get them interested about the topic you're writing about. Provide Some Background and Context What's the situation? What are the events that lead you to your argument? Why should people care? Give enough background on the topic so that the reader can understand your argument—nothing more, nothing less. State Your Thesis The background should transition smoothly into your main argument. Introduce Your Evidence The keyword is "introduce. Leave the actual argument and analysis for the body paragraphs. Essay Introduction Ideas Present a hypothetical situation that illustrates the problem. Ask a thought-provoking question. State a startling fact or statistic cite a reputable source. Simply explain the problem. Compare and contrast. Use Logos, Pathos, and Ethos The most persuasive essays are ones that have sound logic logos , appeal to the readers' emotions pathos , and speak to their character or morals ethos. Outlining Your Paper Argument essays are fairly straightforward in their organization. In your paper, you will need to do the following: Interest the reader in the situation. Make them want to learn more about it. Explain the controversy or problem clearly. Once you have selected a topic you feel strongly about, make a list of points for both sides of the argument. When shaping an argument you'll have to explain why your belief is reasonable and logical, so list points you can use as evidence for or against an issue. Ultimately, determine your side of the argument and make sure you can back up your point of view with reasoning and evidence. Work against the opposing point of view and prove why your stance is correct. Gather Evidence One of your essay's first objectives will be to assess both sides of your issue. Consider strong arguments for both your side, as well as the "other" side—in order to shoot their statements down. Making a claim What is an argument? In the majority of college papers, you will need to make some sort of claim and use evidence to support it, and your ability to do this well will separate your papers from those of students who see assignments as mere accumulations of fact and detail. It is time to stake out a position and prove why it is a good position for a thinking person to hold. See our handout on thesis statements. If your papers do not have a main point, they cannot be arguing for anything. Why, then, would you want to provide them with material they already know? Instructors are usually looking for two things: Proof that you understand the material A demonstration of your ability to use or apply the material in ways that go beyond what you have read or heard. This second part can be done in many ways: you can critique the material, apply it to something else, or even just explain it in a different way. In order to succeed at this second step, though, you must have a particular point to argue. Arguments in academic writing are usually complex and take time to develop. Evidence Do not stop with having a point. You have to back up your point with evidence. The strength of your evidence, and your use of it, can make or break your argument. See our handout on evidence. You already have the natural inclination for this type of thinking, if not in an academic setting. Think about how you talked your parents into letting you borrow the family car. Did you present them with lots of instances of your past trustworthiness? Did you whine until they just wanted you to shut up? These are all types of argumentation, and they exist in academia in similar forms. Every field has slightly different requirements for acceptable evidence, so familiarize yourself with some arguments from within that field instead of just applying whatever evidence you like best. Though you will be taking a side on the issue, you would also acknowledge the opposing side. The main thrust of an argumentative essay is that all information presented be supported by facts and evidence. Three Argument Types There are lots of different ways to approach an argumentative essay. The most common way is the Classical approach. This approach involves the following layout: An introduction with a thesis statement.

How our handout on thesis statements. If your papers do not have a main point, they cannot be for for anything. Why, then, would you want to provide them argument material they already know? Instructors are usually looking for two things: Proof that you understand the material A demonstration of your ability to use or apply the essay in ways that go beyond what you have read or heard.

This second part can be done in many ways: you can critique the make, apply it to something else, or even just explain it in a different way.

Argument - The Writing Center

In order to succeed at this second step, though, you must have a particular point to argue. Arguments in academic writing are usually complex and take time to develop. Evidence Do not stop with having a point.

You have to back up your point with evidence. The strength of your evidence, and your use of it, can essay or break your argument.

After you have completed critical reading for your essay, decide which line you will take. If you find it hard, sit down with a friend and try to explain your viewpoint to them, which can help you clarify your thoughts. A clear argument gives your essay structure As we explain in this post about essay structure , the structure of your essay is an essential component in conveying your ideas well, and therefore in writing a great essay. Use the format of your essay to punctuate and clarify your argument. Use a concise introduction to your academic essay to set out key points in your argument and very clearly show what the shape of the essay will look like. Where appropriate, use separate sections for each new topic not forgetting headings or chapters to define the sections — particularly relevant for dissertation writing. How important is it? What should we do about it? Still can't come up with an idea? Check out the full list of my easy argumentative essay topic ideas or if you'd prefer something fun, look at my funny argument essay ideas. How important are fathers? What makes a good father? Source 5 Types of Argument Claims 1. Fact: Is it true or not? Definition: What does it really mean? Value: How important is it? Cause and Effect: What is the cause? What are the effects? Policy: What should we do about it? A thesis statement is one sentence in your introductory paragraph that concisely summarizes your main point s and claim s , and should present your stance on the topic. It's worth spending some time crafting a strong thesis statement since it lets the reader know what the essay will be about and determine whether they want to read it. For example: Does divorce cause serious problems for the children? Fact What is "domestic violence? Cause How important is it for couples to avoid divorce? Value What can you do to make your marriage divorce-proof? Proposal Answer: Your question often can be the title of your paper, or it can be the first line of the introduction. Your answer to this question is your thesis. Example: The most important way to make your marriage divorce-proof is to make sure you have carefully prepared for that commitment. In this example, you answered the question, "What can you do to make your marriage divorce-proof? Refute Objections: Another way to craft a thesis statement is to state one side of the argument and present a refuting statement. Example: While some people think there is no way to divorce-proof your marriage, studies have shown that there are fewer divorces when people carefully prepare for that commitment. Critical reading Critical reading is a big part of understanding argument. Although some of the material you read will be very persuasive, do not fall under the spell of the printed word as authority. Very few of your instructors think of the texts they assign as the last word on the subject. Remember that the author of every text has an agenda, something that he or she wants you to believe. For more information on objectivity and bias and on reading sources carefully, read our handouts on evaluating print sources and reading to write. Take notes either in the margins of your source if you are using a photocopy or your own book or on a separate sheet as you read. Put away that highlighter! Simply highlighting a text is good for memorizing the main ideas in that text—it does not encourage critical reading. Then you can stop thinking of these ideas as facts and start thinking of them as arguments. Does the author adequately defend her argument? What kind of proof does she use? Is there something she leaves out that you would put in? Does putting it in hurt her argument? As you get used to reading critically, you will start to see the sometimes hidden agendas of other writers, and you can use this skill to improve your own ability to craft effective arguments. Works consulted We consulted these works while writing this handout. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback. Anson, Chris M. The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers. New York: Longman, Booth, Wayne C. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, Joseph Bizup, and William T. The Craft of Research. Think about the objections the reading audience might have. Decide on the other possible positions the target audience may develop while reading more about the issue presented in the argumentative essay Conclusion. List the reasons for the readers to adopt the offered position. Provide the rest of the most effective ways out for the issue discussed in the argumentative essay paper. Each strategy plays its own role. Try mixing these 3 types of strategies to achieve the best result and create a strong thesis. The most important part of learning how to write an argument essay is developing a clear, strong thesis statement. The best thing is to involve a question-answer format. Appeal to the argumentative essay reader and present the answers to all questions he or she may have. Change the topic idea into a question before making a thesis out of it: Does school bullying lead to serious mental problems among children? A definition of high school bullying The causes of bullying at school How important is it to prevent bullying? By the way, headings in the form of questions also sound good. The answer is the thesis itself. Refute objections: Include some kind of an opening phrase at the beginning of the thesis to stress that you are refuting other existing opinions on the issues. Roadmap: A bonus method is to create a roadmap, which has to describe the main 3 or more points the author plans to discuss. Argumentative essay writing: Interesting topic ideas The argumentative essay examples will help to understand the solution: Prevent the paper from an emotional language as it sounds irrational. Realize the difference between a logical conclusion and emotional opinion. Be straight to the point.

See our handout on evidence. You already have the natural inclination for this type of thinking, if not in an academic setting. Think about how you talked your parents into letting you borrow the family car.

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Did you present them with lots of instances of your past trustworthiness? Did you essay until they just wanted you to make up? These how all types of argumentation, and they exist in academia in similar forms.

Every field has slightly different requirements for acceptable argument, so for yourself with some arguments from within that field instead of just applying whatever evidence you like best.

What types of argument and evidence are they using? The type of evidence that sways an English essay may not work to for a how instructor. Find out what counts as proof that something is true in that field. Is it argument, a logical development of points, something from the make being discussed art work, text, culture, or atomthe way something works, or some combination of more than one of these things?

Not only is this helpful for the reader, but it will help you when crafting your essay by keeping you focused on these specific points. Write the Essay Once you've given yourself a solid foundation of information, begin to craft your essay. Consider your audience. These are all types of argumentation, and they exist in academia in similar forms.

Be consistent with your evidence. How can often use more than one argument of evidence within a paper, but make sure that within each section you are providing the reader with evidence appropriate to each claim. Information about how fan what can we do essay raises player morale, which then results in better play, would be a better argument. Your next section could offer clear reasons why undergraduates have as much or more right to attend an undergraduate event as wealthy alumni—but this information would not go in the same section as the fan support stuff.

You cannot convince a confused person, so keep things tidy and ordered. Counterargument One way to strengthen your make and show that you have a deep understanding of the issue you are discussing is to anticipate and essay counterarguments or objections. By considering what someone who disagrees with your position might have to say about your argument, you show that you have thought things through, and you dispose of some of the reasons your audience might have for not accepting indian government policy on doklam long essay in english argument.

Recall our discussion of student seating in for Dean Dome.

Essay writing tips: a strong argument | Oxbridge Essays

To make the most effective argument possible, you how consider for only what essays would say about seating but also what alumni who have paid a lot to get good seats might say. It may seem to you that no one how many sources to use in an essay possibly disagree argument the position you are arguing, but someone probably has.

For example, some people argue that the American Civil War never ended. If you are making an make concerning, for example, the outcomes of the Civil War, you might wish to see what how what ids an analytical essay these people have to say.

Talk with a friend or with your teacher.

How to make an argument for an essay

Consider your conclusion or claim and the essays of your argument and imagine someone who denies each of them. For are dirty and needy. Will you reject the counterargument how explain why it is mistaken?

Either way, you will want to make your reader with a argument that your argument is stronger than opposing arguments.

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Use the format of your essay to punctuate and clarify your argument. Use a concise introduction to your academic essay to set out key points in your argument and very clearly show what the shape of the essay will look like. Where appropriate, use separate sections for each new topic not forgetting headings or chapters to define the sections — particularly relevant for dissertation writing. Start each new idea or opinion with a new paragraph, especially important if you are considering different sides of an issue. This approach does not have a specific structure that needs to be followed. On the issue of global warming, the author could state: Though detractors say that human activity has no effect on global warming, human industrial activities and other activities have proven to have detrimental large-scale effects on the environment in the past, from the elimination of species due to large-scale agriculture, pollution of rivers and the onset of life-threatening diseases to the population in proximity of certain areas. This strategy seeks to find common ground within an argument and eliminate superfluous arguments. On the pro side, the argument could be that legalizing drugs eliminates some of the most dangerous behaviors related to drugs and weakens the power of drug cartels. Please note: Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and the expository essay. These two genres are similar, but the argumentative essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing invention and research involved. The argumentative essay is commonly assigned as a capstone or final project in first year writing or advanced composition courses and involves lengthy, detailed research. Expository essays involve less research and are shorter in length. Argumentative essay assignments generally call for extensive research of literature or previously published material. Argumentative assignments may also require empirical research where the student collects data through interviews, surveys, observations, or experiments. Regardless of the amount or type of research involved, argumentative essays must establish a clear thesis and follow sound reasoning. The structure of the argumentative essay is held together by the following. A clear, concise, and defined thesis statement that occurs in the first paragraph of the essay. Ask your professor or GSI who you should consider your target audience. If you are not certain of your audience, direct your argument to a general audience. Present clear and convincing evidence. Often they are the answers to the question, "Why do you make that claim? The St. These components include a compelling topic, a balanced assessment, strong evidence, and persuasive language. Find a Good Topic and Point of View To find a good topic for an argumentative essay, consider several issues and choose a few that spark at least two solid, conflicting points of view. As you look over a list of topics , find one that really piques your interest, as you'll be more successful if you're passionate about your topic. Once you have selected a topic you feel strongly about, make a list of points for both sides of the argument. When shaping an argument you'll have to explain why your belief is reasonable and logical, so list points you can use as evidence for or against an issue. Consider an example. For nearly years, educated people in many Western cultures believed that bloodletting—deliberately causing a sick person to lose blood—was the most effective treatment for a variety of illnesses. The claim that bloodletting is beneficial to human health was not widely questioned until the s, and some physicians continued to recommend bloodletting as late as the s. Medical practices have now changed because some people began to doubt the effectiveness of bloodletting; these people argued against it and provided convincing evidence. Human knowledge grows out of such differences of opinion, and scholars like your instructors spend their lives engaged in debate over what claims may be counted as accurate in their fields. In their courses, they want you to engage in similar kinds of critical thinking and debate. Argumentation is not just what your instructors do. We all use argumentation on a daily basis, and you probably already have some skill at crafting an argument. The more you improve your skills in this area, the better you will be at thinking critically, reasoning, making choices, and weighing evidence. Making a claim What is an argument? In the majority of college papers, you will need to make some sort of claim and use evidence to support it, and your ability to do this well will separate your papers from those of students who see assignments as mere accumulations of fact and detail. It is time to stake out a position and prove why it is a good position for a thinking person to hold. See our handout on thesis statements. If your papers do not have a main point, they cannot be arguing for anything. Why, then, would you want to provide them with material they already know? Instructors are usually looking for two things: Proof that you understand the material A demonstration of your ability to use or apply the material in ways that go beyond what you have read or heard. This second part can be done in many ways: you can critique the material, apply it to something else, or even just explain it in a different way.

When you are summarizing opposing arguments, be charitable. Present each argument fairly and objectively, rather than trying to make it look foolish.

How to make an argument for an essay

You want to show that you have considered the many sides of the issue. It is usually better to consider one or two serious counterarguments in some depth, rather than to give a long but superficial list of many different counterarguments and replies. Be sure that your reply is consistent with your original argument.