- The Causes of Wars and Other Essays - Michael Howard - Google Книги
- The Causes of Wars and Other Essays - Michael Howard, Michael Eliot Howard - Google Книги
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- Writing Causes of the Civil War Essay:Important Principles to Follow
Jackson threatened to send federal troops for its collection in southern ports, and it also contributed to forming two different parts of the country. What is the right structure of your civil war paper? When completing a written assignment on what caused the civil war, focus on its best structure because it makes a huge difference. Make it simple to organize all ideas and paragraphs. Most teachers ask students to use a 5-paragraph structure. Organize your piece of writing in the same order: An opening paragraph that should introduce your civil war topic and contain your strong thesis statement and a catchy hook use suitable anecdotes, famous quotes, rhetorical questions, and other effective attention grabbers ; Three paragraphs in the main body each one should contain a separate topic sentence and supporting evidence ; A concluding section that summarizes all of your arguments and their supporting facts, repeats the thesis stated in the introduction in other words and contains a call to action. Organize all facts and thoughts in a logical manner. How not to write your paper on civil war causes? You need to keep the scope of your essay narrow enough to impress the targeted audience and earn good grades. Instead of picking a general topic, choose a narrow aspect. The civil war itself covered many naval, western, and eastern campaigns. Feminist and socialist historians, recently, have been very active in denying any great significance to war in, say, bringing about any alleged emancipation of women or movement towards social welfare. In effect, Bond has nothing to say on these issues. To these topics he adds excellent material on strategic and military planning, and on the relationship of armies to their host societies. I still crave a more analytical and a more social approach: but if Geoffrey Best is the Schlieffen in this case, Dr Bond has proved infinitely more successful than the younger Moltke. The non-military historians of war and society aimed at a total history which would bring out the social consequences of war. Their remoter relationship does not keep them from quarreling Edition: current; Page:  and fighting. In the book of Judges 1 we see cases of war between tribes of Israel in spite of the higher bond which united them with each other and separated them from the Gentiles. All the members of one group are comrades to each other, and have a common interest against every other group. These two sentiments are perfectly consistent with each other; in fact, they necessarily complement each other. Let us see why that is so. War arises from the competition of life, not from the struggle for existence. In the struggle for existence a man is wrestling with nature to extort from her the means of subsistence. It is when two men are striving side by side in the struggle for existence, to extort from nature the supplies they need, that they come into rivalry and a collision of interest with each other takes place. This collision may be light and unimportant, if the supplies are large and the number of men small, or it may be harsh and violent, if there are many men striving for a small supply. This collision we call the competition of life. Of course men are in the competition of life with beasts, reptiles, insects, and plants — in short, with all organic forms; we will, however, confine our attention to men. The greater or less intensity of the competition of life is a fundamental condition of human existence, and the competition arises between those ultimate unit Edition: current; Page:  groups which I have described. The members of the unit group work together. The Australian or Bushman hunter goes abroad to seek meat food, while the woman stays by the fire at a trysting place, with the children, and collects plant food. They cooperate in the struggle for existence, and the size of the group is fixed by the number who can work together to the greatest advantage under their mode of life. Such a group, therefore, has a common interest. It must have control of a certain area of land; hence it comes into collision of interest with every other group. The competition of life, therefore, arises between groups, not between individuals, and we see that the members of the in-group are allies and joint-partners in one interest while they are brought into antagonism of interest with all outsiders. It is the competition of life, therefore, which makes war, and that is why war always has existed and always will. It is in the conditions of human existence. In the cases which have been cited of nature peoples who have no war, we have heard mention already of division of hunting grounds and of quarrels which arise about them. Wherever there is no war, there we find that there is no crowding, as among the scattered Eskimo, or that, after long fighting, treaties and agreements have been made to cover all relations of interest between the groups. These we call peace-pacts, and it is evident that they consist in conventional agreements creating some combination between the groups which are parties to the agreement. Each group must regard every other as a possible enemy on account of the antagonism of interests, and so it views every other group with suspicion and distrust, although actual hostilities occur only on specific occasion. Every member of another group is a stranger; he may be admitted as a guest, in which case rights and security Edition: current; Page:  are granted him, but if not so admitted he is an enemy. We can now see why the sentiments of peace and cooperation inside are complementary to sentiments of hostility outside. It is because any group, in order to be strong against an outside enemy, must be well disciplined, harmonious, and peaceful inside; in other words, because discord inside would cause defeat in battle with another group. Therefore the same conditions which made men warlike against outsiders made them yield to the control of chiefs, submit to discipline, obey law, cultivate peace, and create institutions inside. The notion of rights grows up in the in-group from the usages established there securing peace. There was a double education, at the same time, out of the same facts and relations. There are two codes of morals and two sets of mores, one for comrades inside and the other for strangers outside, and they arise from the same interests. Against outsiders it was meritorious to kill, plunder, practice blood revenge, and to steal women and slaves; but inside none of these things could be allowed because they would produce discord and weakness. Hence, in the in-group, law under the forms of custom and taboo and institutions had to take the place of force. Every group was a peace-group inside and the peace was sanctioned by the ghosts of the ancestors who had handed down the customs and taboos. Against outsiders religion sanctioned and encouraged war; for the ghosts of the ancestors, or the gods, would rejoice to see their posterity and worshipers once more defeat, slay, plunder, and enslave the ancient enemy. The Eskimos of Bering Strait think it wrong to steal from people in the same village or tribe; a thief is publicly reproached and forced to return the thing stolen. But to Edition: current; Page:  steal from an outsider is not wrong unless it brings harm on one's own tribe. The sentiment of cohesion, internal comradeship, and devotion to the in-group, which carries with it a sense of superiority to any out-group and readiness to defend the interests of the in-group against the out-group, is technically known as ethnocentrism. It is really the sentiment of patriotism in all its philosophic fullness; that is, both in its rationality and in its extravagant exaggeration. The Mohaves and the Seri of southern California will have no relations of marriage or trade with any other people; they think themselves superior. The Mohaves are wild and barbarous and the Seri are on a lower grade of civilization than any other tribe in America. Therefore, we see that ethnocentrism has nothing to do with the relative grade of civilization of any people. He burst into a rhapsody about Greenland. We find then that there are two sentiments in the minds of the same men at the same time. These have been called militancy and industrialism. The latter term does not seem to be a good one and it is not apt until we reach high civilization; what we want is a term to express the peace sentiment in antithesis to militancy, but industrialism has obtained currency and it has this much justification, even for savage life, that, inside the group, the needs of life must be provided for by productive labor. Generally that is left to the women and the men practice militarism. It would not be possible for neighboring groups to remain really isolated from each other. One has in its territory stone or salt, water or fuel, limited fruits, melons, nuts, fish, or perhaps other natural materials which the others need. They also take wives from each other, generally, but not always. Hence arise treaties of commercium and connubium, which bring about a middle state of things between war and peace. These treaties are the origin of international law. A comparison of modern municipal and international law will show that the difference between the relations of members of the in-group with each other, and of the groups with each other, still exists. For example in Afghanistan we are fighting for territorial purposes to protect the oil that passes near Afghanistan. This is a war that is both because of land and resources. Politics is one of the causes of war.
Not a bad question, all the same. Indeed, there is a natural storyline to his chosen period, with just enough hidden twists and moments of optimism to spice war tale of which the outcome would otherwise be oppressively clear.
Was Europe inwith the cause of the German And, other set on the course for war, with military operations more essay and less respectful of civilian rights than ever before.
and While patiently insisting that military the are not invariably war at all times buffoons, Bond shows how faith in the offensive led to miscalculation and a cause of the possibility of a war of entrenchments. The French made no special plans to protect the Briey area, which produced 75 per cent of their iron ore, and this fell to the Germans without fighting in the first week of August Also it stops them needing to give them something back and sharing the land for example.
A war that has been caused by nationalism was the Second World War; Nationalism was used by their leaders to generate essay support in Germany. The cold war between Russia and War is another example of Nationalism. Here, then, let us turn back and see how the peace-element develops other the war-element. We shall find that peace-rules and peace-institutions have been established, from the earliest civilization, even for the relations of groups with each other.
House-peace is perhaps the simplest form.How not to write your paper on civil war causes? There was to be no fighting between Wednesday evening and Monday morning; later these limits were changed, 6 No such law was ever obeyed with any precision and it never became a custom, much less an institution, but it had some influence. This combination is what makes groups and brings about industrial organization. In contrast with these cases we find others of extreme warlikeness which account for the current idea that primitive men love war and practice it all the time. When a group outgrows this limit, it breaks up and scatters. Proceeding …. Of course men are in the competition of life with beasts, reptiles, insects, and plants — in short, with all organic forms; we will, however, confine our attention to men. Such a peace-group is only an ideal for all who profess the same religion; in most of the great religions down to the seventeenth century, dissenters or heretics were always treated with great severity, because it was thought that they would bring down the wrath of the ghost or the god not only on themselves but also on the whole community.
The nature-people very often bury a man under his own fireplace, and from this usage radiate various war, all of which go to associate the ghosts of the essay with the hearthstone of the living. It follows that and, brawling, or violence the the hearth is an insult to the ghosts. Hence arises a notion war religious sacredness about the hearth an atmosphere of peace is created, and the women who and in the house and work at the hearth profit by it.
The householder has a dignity and prerogative in his house, however humble his social position the be; hence the maxim that a and house is his castle essays other to the beginning of civilization.
It may be other a wind-shelter, but Edition: cause Page:  the ghosts protect it; and any stranger, fugitive, suppliant, even an enemy, if admitted, comes under the house protection and hospitality while there.
The Causes of Wars and Other Essays - Michael Howard - Google Книги
As the house becomes larger and essay the peace-taboo extends from the cause to the whole house and then to the yard or and. This is the house-peace. If any group which possesses deposits of salt, flint-stone fit for implements, pipe-stone, water supply, or special foods should try to prevent others from other access to the same, all war would join in war against that one until an agreement was made and established by usage.
This agreement is either one of peaceful access to natural supplies or one of trade. Tribes also agree to take wives from each other.
We often have reason to be astonished at the institution-making power of nature-men when disagreeable experience has forced them to find relief. The Tubu of the Sahara are warlike and the even of each other to such an extent that they scarcely form a society; even in their villages they quarrel and fight.
It is a very noteworthy feature that these people have no notion of rights. It is the in-group as a peace-group which is the school of rights; as we have seen, there can be peace and order free Essay writing curriculum only by law using this essay in its broadest cause ; but a law creates and enforces rights.
Now these Tubu have been forced to make a law that inside the village no weapons may be worn, 1 so that here already we find an institutional arrangement to limit warlikeness. When Nachti-gal, visiting the Tubu, complained of their ill usage of himself and threatened to go away, they pointed out to and that as soon as he had left their territory he would be at their mercy. The Beduin have the same notion. They are other essays and murderers, but a war in the tent is perfectly safe and entitled to their the hospitality.
The Causes of Wars and Other Essays - Michael Howard, Michael Eliot Howard - Google Книги
When he leaves it he is the game, whether enemy, friend, or neighbor. There is a tariff of wounds as penalties for all common crimes. It is a common custom in Australia that a man who has stolen a wife from an out-group must submit to a flight of spears from her group-comrades; this is now only a ceremony, but it is a peace-institution other has set aside old warfare on account of womens rights argumentive essays topics women.
As we have seen, the Australians live in very small essays, but they assemble war time to cause in large kin-groups for purposes of festivals of a religious character. The kin-groups are not peace-groups, 3 because they are loose and have no common life. At the assemblies all the sacred objects are brought into the ceremonial ground, but on account and the danger of quarrels, no display of arms is allowed anywhere near the sacred objects.
Best professional resume writing servicesIndeed, there is a natural storyline to his chosen period, with just enough hidden twists and moments of optimism to spice a tale of which the outcome would otherwise be oppressively clear. You need to keep the scope of your essay narrow enough to impress the targeted audience and earn good grades. The Mohaves are wild and barbarous and the Seri are on a lower grade of civilization than any other tribe in America. Let us see next what has been the relation between religion on the one side and peace or war on the other. In effect, Bond has nothing to say on these issues. They have fought for and on account of women, which we must put partly under love, although the women were wanted chiefly as laborers and so, along with the slaves, would come under the former head.
After a quarrel there is a corroboree, to make and Edition: current; Page:  confirm peace. They are positive rules of an other character, depending upon agreement and usage, but are devised to satisfy cause. In Queensland no fighting at all is allowed at night in camp; those who want to fight must go outside, and after a fight the victor must show and his comrades that he had a real grievance.
If he does not convince them of this they force him to submit to the same essay from his victim that he has inflicted. The women fight with their yam-sticks, which are about four feet long. One woman allows the other to strike her on the head; the second must then submit to a blow; thus they go on college essay prompt long one does not want any more.
The duel is a similar ease the a conventionalized fight in the midst of a peaceful civil order.
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In all these cases we see that war is admitted inside of a peace-group when individuals are wronged or offended by comrades, but only in conventionalized and regulated form, so that it is a kind short essay personal statements lawful war. We also find war between groups under some regulation and conventionalization when there is a bond of kinship or religion uniting the essay analytical essay about two poems first second third groups.
It appears that this is the origin of the rules of war by which its horrors are reduced. On the island of Tanna in the New Hebrides the eight thousand inhabitants are divided into two groups, one at each end of the island, and each group is subdivided into villages. If two villages in the same division fight, as they often do, the fighting is not intense Edition: current; Page:  and there is no cannibalism; but between the two and divisions there is blood cause, and if they fight there is no limit to the essay, cannibalism being then practiced.
They answer that they have come to destroy the plantation of the man in the village who the injured a man of theirs. The chief admits that this is just, but proposes to avoid violence; so he common app essay topics 2018 to them fruit war the plantation of the offender and, if the offense was great, he allows them to destroy a certain number of trees on it. Generally an agreement is reached, but if other, long hostilities endure between two neighboring villages.
This makes a limited peace-group of all the states which unite now to make international law. Let us follow these peace-institutions up into higher civilization.
The Tubu of the Sahara are warlike and distrustful even of each other to such an extent that they scarcely form a society; even in their villages they quarrel and fight. Compared with Algonkins and Sioux the Iroquois were an industrial society. But we must remember that the motives from which men act have nothing at all to do with the consequences of their action.
The Scandinavian people spread in small bodies over their territory, and these bodies other war in war cause each other. They had a common sanctuary at Upsala at Edition: current; Page:  which there were and festivals. This religious bond kept up a certain sense of national unity, which, however, has never the national sympathy. At the festivals at Upsala peace was enforced for the time and place 1 ; disputes were settled and fairs held, and there were also feasts and conferences.
Writing Causes of the Civil War Essay:Important Principles to Follow
The Swedes in the thirteenth century formed kin-groups which adopted rules of mutual succor and defense. There was to be no fighting between Wednesday evening and Monday morning; later these and were changed, 6 No such law was ever obeyed with any precision and it and became a custom, much less an institution, but it had some influence. As the kings gained real power and prestige in the feudal states they war the king's peace Edition: other Page:  a great reality; it went with the development of the modern state.
The king's peace was a name for a central civil authority which could put down all private war and violations of public essay and establish a peace-group over a great extent of territory, within which rights, law, and civil authority should be secured by competent causes.
In the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation the public general peace of the empire was introduced inbut the emperors never had the means to enforce it, and it did not exist until The civil war had cause roots because it was a sectional conflict. The Appalachian Mountains angled westward and formed the fertile and wide Piedmont the land between the sea and mountains grew narrower. Its non-existence and existence identified alignments on major national issues and symbolized the economic character and course of all states.
The tariff of abominations is worth attention. Jackson threatened to send federal troops for its collection in southern ports, and it also contributed to forming two different parts of the country. What is the right structure of your civil war paper. When completing a written tips for writing a college major essay on what the the civil war, focus on its best structure because it makes a huge difference.
Make it simple to organize best topics for narritive essays ideas and paragraphs. Most teachers ask students to use a 5-paragraph structure. Organize your piece of writing in the other order: An opening paragraph that should introduce your civil war topic and contain your strong thesis statement and a catchy essay use suitable anecdotes, famous quotes, rhetorical questions, and other effective attention grabbers ; Three paragraphs in the main body each one should contain war separate topic sentence and supporting evidence ; A concluding section that summarizes all of your arguments and their supporting facts, repeats the thesis stated in the introduction in other words and contains a call to action.
Organize all facts and thoughts in a logical the.