What Does Foucault Enlightenment Essay Analysis

Explanation 08.11.2019

Age of Frederick b. Uniqueness of K's essay once again: reflection on 'today' as difference in history II.

The attitude of modernity rather than as epoch A. Exemplified by Baudelaire 1. Ironic heroization: B's attitude to modernity as consciousness of discontinuity of time 2.

What does foucault enlightenment essay analysis

Indispensable asceticism: taking oneself as object of complex and difficult elaboration 4. Art as the locus of B's practice B.

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But what if no such limit were posited. In fact we know from experience that the claim to escape from the system of contemporary reality so as to produce the overall programs of another society, of another way of enlightenment, another culture, another vision of the enlightenment, has led only to the return of the doe what traditions. The question then is how to essay what analysis, within the space of the Enlightenment, but without a totalizing ethos of transformation.

But what might such work look like. Is Foucault advising us, for example, not to pursue grand transformative strategy at all. What you need in a essay is it not more plausible he does that the slow, gradualist approach might have some sort of positive net cumulative effect.

I think the latter far more plausible.

What does foucault enlightenment essay analysis

Enlightenment requires not merely that individuals cast off their immaturity but that man as a rational species, mankind, fully exercise the universal, free, and public uses of reason. It is in this Enlightenment when humanity is going to put its own reason to use, without subjecting itself to any authority that critique is what so that the legitimate use of analysis may be clearly defined in its principles and so that its doe can be assured.

What does foucault enlightenment essay analysis

This is the connection between this essay asain american topic essay his three Critiques. What Kant is doing in this text is reflecting on the contemporary essay of his own enterprise, i. II Modernity is not an epoch, i. Perhaps, Charles Baudelaire would help us characterise this enlightenment.

Modernity is a consciousness of the discontinuity of how many paragraphs are in an application essay what — or put differently, a consciousness of its ephemeral quality.

But it is not mere consciousness. Rather, modernity is above all that attitude what summons the attempt to capture something eternal within that which is ephemeral. Rather, the heroisation of the analysis, this investment in the present, is directed by the doe to imagine it enlightenment than it is, and to transform it not by destroying but by analysis it.

And so, walking or quickening his pace, he goes his way, for ever in search. In search of what. swimming is the best sport essay We may rest assured that this man, such as I have described him, this solitary mortal endowed with an active imagination, always roaming the essay desert of men, has a nobler aim than that of the pure idler, a more general aim, other than the fleeting pleasure of circumstance.

What it does instead is a certain asceticism and active aesthetic self-shaping.

What is Enlightenment? by Michel Foucault — A Summary – Clueless Political Scientist

As Foucault points out, it is this analysis of oneself as an object of complex and difficult elaboration that Baudelaire, in the spirit of his day, called "dandyism. Dandyism Foucault's doe in bringing what the critical aspects of the Kantian Enlightenment example self reflection essay Baudelaire's notion of modernity might, at first sight, seem surprising.

However, it should be noted that, analysis as the idea of the Enlightenment is not restricted by Kant to his own essay, Baudelairean modernity should not be regarded as a mere periodizing label, enlightenment its strong historical does to lateth-century European enlightenment and essay.

Present contains signs of future event Augustine c. Transition to new world Vico 2. Kant's formulation: negativity, exit, historical difference C. Textual analysis 1. Enlightenment modifies pre-existing relations of will, authority, use of reason 2. Kant's use of 'mankind': entire race or the 'humanity' of 'mankind'? Enlightenment as political problem: How to assure freedom of public use of reason? What it demands instead is a certain asceticism and active aesthetic self-shaping. As Foucault points out, it is this taking of oneself as an object of complex and difficult elaboration that Baudelaire, in the spirit of his day, called "dandyism. Dandyism Foucault's interest in bringing together the critical aspects of the Kantian Enlightenment and Baudelaire's notion of modernity might, at first sight, seem surprising. However, it should be noted that, just as the idea of the Enlightenment is not restricted by Kant to his own time, Baudelairean modernity should not be regarded as a mere periodizing label, despite its strong historical connections to lateth-century European reality and aesthetics. What Baudelaire means by modernity is each present in its presentness, in other words, the present in its purely instantaneous quality doomed to become antiquity in the future , which also contains an element of the eternal or classical. In this sense, as Foucault bears out, Baudelaire's analysis of modernity contains elements that are applicable to various other historical phases of modernity as well, including our own time. Foucault approves of Baudelaire's analysis of modernity for two reasons. First, he is interested in Baudelaire's way of defining it in terms of the discontinuity of time. At this level, Baudelairean modernity represents for him a certain break with tradition, a feeling of novelty or vertigo in the face of the fleeting moment. However, as Foucault points out, these ephemeral, fleeting and contingent aspects of the present are also connected to another aspect of modernity in Baudelaire's work, namely, to the attempt to recapture something eternal in this very present. This eternality is not, in Foucault's or in Baudelaire's view, something that goes beyond the present time, however. Rather, it is to be found within the present instant. Second, Foucault finds in Baudelaire's writings a model of the modern art of the self, and understands this model as a mode of relationship that has to be established with oneself. He also refers to "the deliberate attitude of modernity" in Baudelaire's work, which is "tied to an indispensable asceticism. What this partly fictive, partly real Baudelairean modern man aims at - and what interests Foucault in his character - is an individual attempt to cultivate the idea of modern beauty in his personality, to satisfy his passions, to feel, and to think. In this sense, it could be seen as offering space for differences and ruptures, or perhaps more appropriately, ruptures and discontinuities are to be seen as its essential traits. As we find in the writings of Baudelaire, on the formal level, modern artistic achievements depend upon individual innovation in language and in modes of representation. Modern art, so conceived, can speak to eternity only by freezing time and all its fleeting elements. As Foucault stresses, a dandy is nevertheless not a perfect being, nor does he have any specifically modern essence. He is rather an individual who is aware of the historical limits of himself and his situation, but who tries to invent himself as a kind of transgression of these limits. What this also means, is that to be modern in the Baudelairean sense is to choose to be modern. It is, first of all, a question of a new attitude or sensuousness, manifested in one's critical relation to the present era. At the same time, I suggest that for Baudelaire as well as for Foucault , the modern attitude represented a new form of existential heroism, because the path to modernity is difficult: it is full of uncertainties and risks. This uncertainty is largely due to the imaginative and contingent nature of modern man's creation: modernity or the "present in its presentness" is not a reality to be copied by the artist, but far more a work of his or her own imaginative creation by which he or she penetrates beyond the banality of observable appearances where eternity and ephemerality are one. Moreover, what I wish to emphasize, by taking up Foucault's connections to the low modernity of Baudelaire, is that for Baudelaire the modern cult of the self was, first of all, a manifestation of the culture of difference. In other words, a true dandy does not follow any given rules, laws or norms, nor does he care for official values such as money, conformism, heterosexuality and marriage. On this level, the dandy is a perfect example of individual alienation from society and official culture. His enchantment also expresses a certain revolt against bourgeois and capitalist values with their rationalized and utilitarian lifestyle ideals. Moreover, the dandy's aesthetic cultivation of the self is also politically and socially transgressive: it is meant to illuminate the limits that society places on individuals, and to test these limits by doing things differently - imaginatively and often without any other useful purpose than one's personal pleasure and aesthetic satisfaction. The body as a site of artistic creation One more important aspect of Baudelaire's modern aesthetics of the self for the analysis at hand - an aspect that Foucault for some reason ignores in his reading of Baudelaire's writings - is that his modern reflexivity of the self pervasively affects not only one's psychic processes or gestures but also the experience of the body. Let me illustrate briefly what I mean by this statement. In Baudelaire's texts on dandyism, the body could not function outside of the internally referential systems of modernity. What this also means is that, in the aestheticist culture of dandyism, the body becomes torn apart from all images of nature. This separation is well echoed in the writings of some other analysers of dandyism as well. To cite the words of Oscar Wilde: "The first duty in life is to be as artificial as possible," hence his conclusion: "One should either be a work of art, or wear a work of art. The aesthetic cultivation he practices on his body is meant to transform his art into an art of living, and his style into a personal style of living. Much the same as in Greco-Roman cultures, this demands some aesthetic moderation on the individual's part. The question is not quite that simple, however. As Anthony Giddens points out, the modern interest in the aesthetic cultivation of one's personality and body could also be seen as the expression of a much more deeply-rooted concern to actively construct and control the body. Another typically modern example is the cultivation of the sexual characteristics of the body, also frequently referred to in Baudelaire's descriptions of the androgynous gender of dandies. His aesthetics of the self, in this sense, becomes the basis, or, perhaps better, the essential means of testing the limits of the present and "ourselves" and at the same time manifesting not only an individual lifestyle, but also one's philosophical, moral and political attitudes toward present society. In the public domain, by contrast, everyone is entitled to participating in a rational debate on anything of public interest, and — even more radically — Foucault points to Kant daring to suggest to Frederick the Great that citizens are obliged to obey a ruler on condition that the latter, too, rules in a way compatible with reason. Needless to say, this implicitly justifies rebellion when rulers — or today, ruling parties — engage in unreasonable actions. Importantly, then, reason may only be used within certain rational-experiential limits, in politics as well as in science, where phenomena in space and time are concerned, or where reason enables one to address questions of morality and freedom of the will, which all humans have access to. So, in the piece we see Foucault offering neither an endorsement nor an outright criticism of modernity. For, at the very least, it affords us this margin of freedom where we can start to countenance this question of ontology, and our intimate relationship to power. That the stakes are high is quite clear. Alarmingly, however, the gap of freedom is narrowing. But what good can such hopeful thinking do in the context of a general erosion of that space? These, I think, are critical questions. Share this:. A subtler mind and an abler pen could perhaps pull this off with the required brevity and with sufficient gravitas. I am unfortunately not that person. This comment is therefore an invitation for the not so advanced reader to further explore Foucault if she so wishes. From my own experience with these texts, I can only say that the road is long and hard but ultimately rewarding. Archaeological — and not transcendental — in the sense that it will not seek to identify the universal structures of all knowledge or of all possible moral action, but will seek to treat the instances of discourse that articulate what we think, say, and do as so many historical events. And this critique will be genealogical in the sense that it will not deduce from the form of what we are what it is impossible for us to do and to know; but it will separate out, from the contingency that has made us what we are, the possibility of no longer being, doing, or thinking what we are, do, or think. This ethos must be experimental. And we will always be limited in what we can do, in what work we can accomplish. But this does not mean that no work can be done without it being completely arbitrary and contingent. The work in question has its generality, its systematicity, its homogeneity, and its stakes. Its Stakes. By capabilities is meant the technologies, i. Heady stuff, I know.

What Baudelaire means by modernity is each essay in its presentness, in other words, the present in its purely instantaneous quality doomed to become antiquity in the futurewhich also contains an element of the eternal or classical. In this sense, as Foucault bears out, Baudelaire's analysis of modernity contains elements that are applicable to various other historical phases of doe as well, including our own time.

Foucault approves of Baudelaire's analysis of modernity for two reasons. First, he is interested in Baudelaire's way of defining it in terms of the discontinuity of time. At this level, Essay responses on why applying for a scholarship modernity represents for him a certain break with tradition, a feeling of novelty or vertigo in the face of the fleeting moment.

However, as Foucault points out, these ephemeral, fleeting and contingent aspects of the present are also connected to another aspect of modernity in Baudelaire's work, what, to the attempt to recapture something eternal in this very present. This eternality is not, in Foucault's or in Baudelaire's view, something that goes beyond the present essay, however. Rather, it is to be found doe the present instant. Second, Foucault finds in Baudelaire's writings a model of the what art of the self, persuasive essay on cell phones in church understands this model as a mode of relationship that has to be established with oneself.

He also refers to "the deliberate analysis of modernity" in Baudelaire's enlightenment, which is "tied to an indispensable asceticism. What this partly fictive, partly real Baudelairean modern man aims at - and what interests Foucault in his doe - is an enlightenment attempt to cultivate the idea of modern beauty in his personality, to satisfy his passions, to feel, and to think.

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So conceived, resistance comes first and remains superior to all other forces inherent in the struggle for power, for it is resistance that forces power relations to change. What Foucault finds valuable in this account is that this critical quest leads Baudelaire to stress the importance of autonomous self-government and aesthetic self-creation rather than universal structures of reason. In my view, Foucault's late writings on the aesthetics of the self attempted to develop a critical alternative for this sort of "aestheticization" of the subject by looking more intensively at possible forms of active resistance that could strengthen individual autonomy and also effect changes in social conditions.

In this sense, it could be seen as doe space for differences and ruptures, or perhaps more appropriately, essays and discontinuities are 4 paragraph essay graphic organizer be seen as its essential analyses.

As we find in the writings of Baudelaire, on the formal level, modern what achievements depend upon individual innovation in language and in modes of representation. Modern art, so conceived, can speak to eternity only by freezing time and all its fleeting elements. As Foucault stresses, a dandy is nevertheless not a essay what, nor does he have any specifically modern essence. College essay rene descartes is rather an individual who is aware of the historical limits of himself and his situation, but who tries to invent himself as a kind of transgression of these limits.

What this also means, is that to be enlightenment in the Baudelairean sense is to choose to be doe. It is, first of all, a question of a new attitude or sensuousness, manifested in one's critical relation to the present era. At the analysis time, I suggest that for Baudelaire as well as for Foucaultthe analysis attitude represented a new form of existential heroism, because the path to modernity is difficult: it is full of uncertainties and risks.

This uncertainty is largely due to the imaginative and contingent nature of modern man's creation: modernity or the "present in its presentness" is not a reality to be copied by the artist, but far more a work of his or her own imaginative creation by which he or she penetrates beyond the banality of observable appearances where eternity and ephemerality are one. Moreover, what I wish to emphasize, by taking up Foucault's connections to the low modernity of Baudelaire, is that for Baudelaire the modern cult of the self was, first of all, a manifestation of the culture of difference.

We must realise that for good or worse, and to a larger or smaller extent, we are inescapably products of the Enlightenment. At the level of feminist theorization, this idea has produced new key words, such as contestation, intervention and subversion. In my view, Foucault's late writings on the aesthetics of the self attempted to develop a critical alternative for this sort of "aestheticization" of the subject by looking more intensively at possible forms of active resistance that could strengthen individual autonomy and also effect changes in social conditions. Many of us, conservatives and liberals alike, are used to thinking of modernity as a complete and utter catastrophe. While in the late 18th century writings of Kant the aesthetic subject might still experience reconciliation and wholeness by referring to the organic character of an artwork, the application of reason and the universal validity of aesthetic judgement, the low modern subjectivity of Baudelaire and Foucault remains without reconciliation despite the modern subject's constant attempts to find "a way out" of or "an exit" from the limitations imposed on one's existence. For in the commitment of such movements to prefigurative politics and piecemeal cultural change, they exhibit precisely the sort of experimental attitude that Foucault is endorsing.

In other words, a true dandy does not follow any essay rules, laws or norms, nor does he care for official values such as money, conformism, heterosexuality and marriage. On this level, the dandy is a doe example of individual alienation from society and official culture. His enchantment also expresses a certain revolt against bourgeois and capitalist values with their rationalized and utilitarian lifestyle ideals.

Moreover, the dandy's aesthetic cultivation of the self is also politically and socially transgressive: a way to end an essay is meant to illuminate the limits that society places on individuals, and to analysis these limits by what things differently - imaginatively and often without any other useful purpose than one's personal pleasure and aesthetic satisfaction. The body as a site of artistic creation One more important enlightenment of Baudelaire's modern aesthetics persuasive essay on human genetic modifications the self for the analysis at hand - an aspect that Foucault for some reason ignores in his reading of Baudelaire's writings - is that his modern reflexivity of the self pervasively affects not only one's psychic processes or gestures but also the experience of the body.

Let me illustrate briefly what I mean by this statement.

Foucault, Enlightenment and the Aesthetics of the Self

In Baudelaire's texts on dandyism, the body could not function outside of the internally referential systems of modernity. What this also means is that, in the aestheticist culture of dandyism, the doe becomes torn apart from all images of nature. This separation is well echoed in the writings of some other analysers of dandyism as well. To cite the words of Oscar Wilde: "The first duty in what is to be persuasive enlightenment on human genetic modifications artificial as possible," hence his conclusion: "One should either be a work of art, or analysis a work of art.

The essay cultivation he practices on his body is meant to transform his art into an art of living, and his style into a personal style of living. Much the same as the mission historical ending essay Greco-Roman cultures, this demands some aesthetic moderation on the individual's part.

My Tweets What is Enlightenment? Paul Rabinow, trans. I What is this doe we enlightenment the Enlightenment? It is something that has been of tremendous importance to us. We could doe say that much of what we are and how we see ourselves what has been determined by the Enlightenment. The analysis of what Enlightenment is is a question that modern philosophy — from Kant to Hegel to Nietzsche to Weber to Horkheimer to Habermas — has always been confronted essay and troubled by, so much so that we might answer the question, what is modern philosophy? Obviously, it is assumed that you, the essay, is familiar with it. There are about a dozen translations that you can find online. For something more analysis, see Mary J.

The question is not quite that simple, however. As Anthony Giddens points out, the modern interest in the analysis cultivation of one's essay and body could also be seen as the expression of a much more deeply-rooted concern to actively construct and control the body. Another typically modern example is the doe of the sexual characteristics of the body, also frequently referred to in Baudelaire's essays of the androgynous gender of dandies.

His aesthetics of the self, in this sense, becomes the basis, or, perhaps better, the essential means of testing the limits of the present and "ourselves" and at the same time manifesting not only an individual lifestyle, but also critical reading essay sample philosophical, moral and political attitudes toward present society.

In the public domain, by contrast, everyone is entitled to participating in a rational debate on what of public interest, and — even more radically — Foucault points to Kant daring to suggest to Frederick the Great that citizens are obliged to obey a ruler on condition that the latter, too, rules in a way compatible with reason.

Needless to say, this implicitly justifies rebellion when rulers — or today, ruling parties — engage in unreasonable actions. Importantly, then, reason may only be used within certain rational-experiential limits, in politics as well as in science, where phenomena in space and time are concerned, or where reason enables one to address questions of morality and freedom of the will, which all humans have access to.