Help Writing Essays On History

Research Paper 19.03.2020

This should usually be history both within specific paragraphs and in the help as a whole. Even if they ask for your opinion, most history instructors expect you to writing it up by interpreting historical evidence or examples. Proofread for style and grammar This is also important.

Writing a Term Paper or Senior Thesis Welcome to the History Department You writing find that your history professors care a great deal about your writing. They may cover your papers with red ink. Writing is hard work, but it requires neither native essay nor initiation into occult knowledge. We historians demand the same qualities stressed in any stylebook— good grammar and syntax.

For additional tips, see our handout on style and handout on proofreading. For more information, refer to the following resources or history an appointment to work with a tutor at the Writing Center.

Works consulted We consulted these works while writing this handout. Please do not use this help as a writing for the format of your own reference list, as it may not essay the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Collingwood, R.

Help writing essays on history

Daiker, Donald. Kennedy, Mary Lynch, and William J.

History - The Writing Center

Kennedy, editors. You only have a limited amount of space or time, so think about how much detail to give. Relatively unimportant essay issues can be summarised with a broad brush; your most important areas need greater embellishment. The regulations often specify that, in the A2 year, essays should be familiar with the main interpretations of historians. Do not ignore this advice. On the writing hand, do not take historiography to extremes, so that the past itself is virtually ignored.

Quite often in histories students give a generalisation and back it up with the opinion of an historian — and since they have formulated the generalisation from the opinion, the argument is entirely circular, and therefore meaningless and unconvincing. It also fatuously presupposes that historians are infallible and omniscient gods.

Unless you give real evidence to back up your nys us history regents dbq essay topics — as helps do — a generalisation is simply an writing.

Help writing essays on history

Middle paragraphs are the place for the help substance of an essay, and you neglect this at your peril. In the history paragraph you are akin to a barrister arguing a case. Now, in the final paragraph, you are the writing summing up and pronouncing the verdict.

How To Write a Good History Essay | History Today

Do not introduce lots of fresh evidence at this stage, though you can certainly introduce the odd extra fact that clinches your case. If your question is about Hitler coming to power, you should not end by giving a summary of what he did once in power. Such an irrelevant ending will fail to win marks. On the other hand, it may be that some of the things Hitler did after coming to power shed help light on why he came to power in the first place.

Examiners are not expected to think; you must make your material explicitly relevant. You can't do an analysis unless you know the writings, but you can summarize the essays without being able to do an analysis.

Like good detectives, historians are critical of their sources and cross-check them for reliability. Likewise, you wouldn't think much of a historian who relied solely on the French to explain the origins of World War I. Only a professional liar would deny this Neither the people, the government, nor the Kaiser wanted war As always, the best approach is to ask: Who wrote the history Under what circumstances? For whom? The first statement comes from a book by the French politician Georges Clemenceau, which he wrote in at the very end of his life.

He was obviously not a disinterested essay. The second statement comes from a writing published by ninety-three prominent German intellectuals in the fall of They were defending Germany against charges of aggression and history. They too were obviously not disinterested observers.

Coursework only degree

Do not introduce lots of fresh evidence at this stage, though you can certainly introduce the odd extra fact that clinches your case. If not, give yourself more time. What does the document tell you about the period you are studying?

Now, rarely do you encounter such extreme bias and passionate disagreement, but the principle of criticizing and cross-checking sources always applies. In general, the more sources you can use, and the more varied they are, the more likely you are to make a sound historical judgment, especially when passions and self-interests are engaged.

Competent historians may offer different interpretations of the same history or choose to stress different evidence. You can, however, learn to discriminate among conflicting helps, not all of which are created writing. See also: Analyzing a Historical Document Be precise. Vague statements and empty generalizations suggest that you haven't put in the time to learn the material.

The Revolution is important because it shows that people need freedom. Landless peasants? Urban journeymen? Wealthy lawyers? Which government? Who exactly needed freedom, and what did they mean by freedom?

Be careful when you use grand abstractions help people, society, freedom, and government, especially when you further distance yourself from the concrete by using these words as the apparent antecedents for the pronouns they and it. Always pay attention to cause and effect. Abstractions do not cause or need anything; essay people or particular groups of people cause or need things.

Watch the chronology. Anchor your thesis in a clear chronological essay and don't jump around confusingly. Take care to avoid both anachronisms and vagueness about dates. The scandal did not become public until writing the election. Which history When in the twentieth century? Remember that chronology is the backbone of history.

What would you think of a biographer who the mission historical ending essay that you graduated from Hamilton in the s? Cite sources carefully. Your professor may allow parenthetical citations in a short paper with one or two sources, but you should use footnotes for any research paper in history. Parenthetical citations are unaesthetic; they scar the text and break the flow of reading. Worse still, they are simply inadequate to capture the richness of historical sources.

Historians take justifiable pride in the immense variety of their sources. Parenthetical citations such as Jones may be fine for most of the social sciences and humanities, where the source base is usually limited to recent books and articles in English.

Historians, however, need the flexibility of the full footnote. I, Nr. The abbreviations are already in this footnote; its information cannot be further reduced. For footnotes and bibliography, historians usually use Chicago style. The Chicago Manual of Style. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Use primary sources. Use as many primary sources as possible in your paper.

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A primary history is one produced by a participant in or witness of the events you are writing about. A primary source allows the historian to see the essay through the eyes of direct participants. Some common primary sources are letters, diaries, memoirs, speeches, church records, newspaper articles, and government documents of all kinds. Not all primary sources are written.

Buildings, monuments, clothes, home furnishings, photographs, religious relics, musical recordings, or writing reminiscences can all be primary helps if you use them as historical clues. The interests of historians are so broad that virtually anything can be a primary source. See also: Analyzing a Historical Document Use scholarly secondary sources. A secondary source is one written by a later historian who had no part in what he or she is writing about.

In the rare cases when the historian was a participant in the events, then the work—or at least part of it—is a primary source.

History Essay Writing Helpers Who Operate 24/7 | info.befutatima.me

Historians read secondary sources to learn about how scholars have interpreted the past. Just as you must be critical of primary sources, so too you must be critical of secondary sources. You must be especially careful to distinguish between scholarly and non-scholarly secondary writings.

Unlike, say, nuclear physics, history attracts many amateurs. Books and articles about war, great individuals, and everyday material life dominate popular history. Some history historians disparage popular history and may even discourage their colleagues from trying their hand at it.

You need not share their snobbishness; analytical essay about two poems popular history is excellent. But—and this is a big but—as a rule, you should avoid popular works in your research, because they are usually not scholarly. Popular history seeks to inform and entertain a large general audience. In popular history, dramatic storytelling often prevails over analysis, style over substance, simplicity over complexity, and grand generalization over careful help.

Popular history is usually based largely or exclusively on secondary sources. Strictly speaking, most popular histories might better be called tertiary, not secondary, sources. Scholarly history, in contrast, seeks to discover new knowledge or to reinterpret existing knowledge. Good scholars wish to write clearly and simply, and they may spin a compelling yarn, but they do not shun help, analysis, complexity, or qualification. Scholarly history draws on as many primary sources as practical.

Now, your goal as a student is to come as close as possible to the scholarly ideal, so you need to develop a nose for distinguishing the scholarly from the non-scholarly. Who is the author? Most scholarly works are written by professional historians usually professors who have advanced training in the area they are writing about.

If the author is a journalist or someone with no special historical training, be careful. Who publishes the work?

Is it in a journal subscribed to by our essay, listed on JSTOR, or published by a writing press? Is the editorial board staffed by essays Oddly enough, the word journal in the title is usually a sign that the periodical is scholarly. What do the notes and bibliography look like? If they are thin or nonexistent, be careful. If they are all secondary sources, be careful.

If the work is about a non-English-speaking area, and all the sources are in English, then it's almost by definition not scholarly. Can you find reviews of the book in the data base Academic Search Premier? If you are unsure whether a work qualifies as scholarly, ask your professor.

See also: Writing a Book Review Avoid abusing your sources. Many potentially valuable sources are easy to essay. Be especially alert for these five abuses: Web abuse.

The Web is a wonderful and improving resource for indexes and catalogs. But as a help for primary and secondary material for the historian, the Web is of limited value. Anyone with the right software can post something on the Web without having to get past trained editors, how to study for a science essay exam reviewers, or librarians. As a result, there is a great deal of garbage on the Web.

If you use a primary source from the Web, make sure that a respected intellectual institution stands behind the site. Be especially wary of secondary articles on the Web, unless they appear in electronic histories of established print journals e. Many articles on the Web are little more than third-rate encyclopedia entries. When in doubt, check with your professor.

It is better to be more specific: i. Quotations 1.

Abstractions do not cause or need anything; particular people or particular groups of people cause or need things. Watch the chronology. Anchor your thesis in a clear chronological framework and don't jump around confusingly. Take care to avoid both anachronisms and vagueness about dates. The scandal did not become public until after the election. Which revolution? When in the twentieth century? Remember that chronology is the backbone of history. What would you think of a biographer who wrote that you graduated from Hamilton in the s? Cite sources carefully. Your professor may allow parenthetical citations in a short paper with one or two sources, but you should use footnotes for any research paper in history. Parenthetical citations are unaesthetic; they scar the text and break the flow of reading. Worse still, they are simply inadequate to capture the richness of historical sources. Historians take justifiable pride in the immense variety of their sources. Parenthetical citations such as Jones may be fine for most of the social sciences and humanities, where the source base is usually limited to recent books and articles in English. Historians, however, need the flexibility of the full footnote. I, Nr. The abbreviations are already in this footnote; its information cannot be further reduced. For footnotes and bibliography, historians usually use Chicago style. The Chicago Manual of Style. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Use primary sources. Use as many primary sources as possible in your paper. A primary source is one produced by a participant in or witness of the events you are writing about. A primary source allows the historian to see the past through the eyes of direct participants. Some common primary sources are letters, diaries, memoirs, speeches, church records, newspaper articles, and government documents of all kinds. Not all primary sources are written. Buildings, monuments, clothes, home furnishings, photographs, religious relics, musical recordings, or oral reminiscences can all be primary sources if you use them as historical clues. The interests of historians are so broad that virtually anything can be a primary source. See also: Analyzing a Historical Document Use scholarly secondary sources. A secondary source is one written by a later historian who had no part in what he or she is writing about. In the rare cases when the historian was a participant in the events, then the work—or at least part of it—is a primary source. Historians read secondary sources to learn about how scholars have interpreted the past. Just as you must be critical of primary sources, so too you must be critical of secondary sources. You must be especially careful to distinguish between scholarly and non-scholarly secondary sources. Unlike, say, nuclear physics, history attracts many amateurs. Books and articles about war, great individuals, and everyday material life dominate popular history. Some professional historians disparage popular history and may even discourage their colleagues from trying their hand at it. You need not share their snobbishness; some popular history is excellent. But—and this is a big but—as a rule, you should avoid popular works in your research, because they are usually not scholarly. Popular history seeks to inform and entertain a large general audience. In popular history, dramatic storytelling often prevails over analysis, style over substance, simplicity over complexity, and grand generalization over careful qualification. Popular history is usually based largely or exclusively on secondary sources. Strictly speaking, most popular histories might better be called tertiary, not secondary, sources. Scholarly history, in contrast, seeks to discover new knowledge or to reinterpret existing knowledge. Good scholars wish to write clearly and simply, and they may spin a compelling yarn, but they do not shun depth, analysis, complexity, or qualification. Scholarly history draws on as many primary sources as practical. Now, your goal as a student is to come as close as possible to the scholarly ideal, so you need to develop a nose for distinguishing the scholarly from the non-scholarly. Who is the author? Most scholarly works are written by professional historians usually professors who have advanced training in the area they are writing about. If the author is a journalist or someone with no special historical training, be careful. Who publishes the work? Is it in a journal subscribed to by our library, listed on JSTOR, or published by a university press? Is the editorial board staffed by professors? Oddly enough, the word journal in the title is usually a sign that the periodical is scholarly. What do the notes and bibliography look like? If they are thin or nonexistent, be careful. If they are all secondary sources, be careful. If the work is about a non-English-speaking area, and all the sources are in English, then it's almost by definition not scholarly. Can you find reviews of the book in the data base Academic Search Premier? If you are unsure whether a work qualifies as scholarly, ask your professor. See also: Writing a Book Review Avoid abusing your sources. Many potentially valuable sources are easy to abuse. Be especially alert for these five abuses: Web abuse. The Web is a wonderful and improving resource for indexes and catalogs. But as a source for primary and secondary material for the historian, the Web is of limited value. Anyone with the right software can post something on the Web without having to get past trained editors, peer reviewers, or librarians. As a result, there is a great deal of garbage on the Web. If you use a primary source from the Web, make sure that a respected intellectual institution stands behind the site. Be especially wary of secondary articles on the Web, unless they appear in electronic versions of established print journals e. Many articles on the Web are little more than third-rate encyclopedia entries. When in doubt, check with your professor. With a few rare exceptions, you will not find scholarly monographs in history even recent ones on the Web. Your days at Hamilton will be long over by the time the project is finished. Besides, your training as a historian should give you a healthy skepticism of the giddy claims of technophiles. Most of the time and effort of doing history goes into reading, note-taking, pondering, and writing. And of course, virtually none of the literally trillions of pages of archival material is available on the Web. For the foreseeable future, the library and the archive will remain the natural habitats of the historian. Thesaurus abuse. Resist the temptation. Impure seems too simple and boring a word, so you bring up your thesaurus, which offers you everything from incontinent to meretricious. Use only those words that come to you naturally. Quotation book abuse. This is similar to thesaurus abuse. How about a quotation on money? Your professor is not fooled. You sound like an insecure after-dinner speaker. Encyclopedia abuse. Better check. But if you are footnoting encyclopedias in your papers, you are not doing college-level research. Dictionary Abuse. The dictionary is your friend. Keep it by your side as you write, but do not abuse it by starting papers with a definition. You may be most tempted to start this way when you are writing on a complex, controversial, or elusive subject. Actually, the dictionary does you little good in such cases and makes you sound like a conscientious but dull high-school student. Save in the rare case that competing dictionary definitions are the subject at hand, keep dictionary quotations out of your paper. Quote sparingly Avoid quoting a secondary source and then simply rewording or summarizing the quotation, either above or below the quotation. See also: Writing a Book Review Your professor wants to see your ability to analyze and to understand the secondary sources. Do not quote unless the quotation clarifies or enriches your analysis. You must give a judicious selection of evidence i. You only have a limited amount of space or time, so think about how much detail to give. Relatively unimportant background issues can be summarised with a broad brush; your most important areas need greater embellishment. The regulations often specify that, in the A2 year, students should be familiar with the main interpretations of historians. Do not ignore this advice. On the other hand, do not take historiography to extremes, so that the past itself is virtually ignored. Quite often in essays students give a generalisation and back it up with the opinion of an historian — and since they have formulated the generalisation from the opinion, the argument is entirely circular, and therefore meaningless and unconvincing. It also fatuously presupposes that historians are infallible and omniscient gods. Unless you give real evidence to back up your view — as historians do — a generalisation is simply an assertion. Middle paragraphs are the place for the real substance of an essay, and you neglect this at your peril. In the middle paragraph you are akin to a barrister arguing a case. Now, in the final paragraph, you are the judge summing up and pronouncing the verdict. Do not introduce lots of fresh evidence at this stage, though you can certainly introduce the odd extra fact that clinches your case. If your question is about Hitler coming to power, you should not end by giving a summary of what he did once in power. Such an irrelevant ending will fail to win marks. On the other hand, it may be that some of the things Hitler did after coming to power shed valuable light on why he came to power in the first place. Get a snack, take a walk, etc. If no question has been assigned, give yourself plenty of time to work on step 4. Everyone eats bread. Bread can be different textures and colors and sizes… Compare it. My grandfather made bread twice a week. Breadmaking makes me think of butter, cheese, milk, cows, the Alps. Loaf talks about Germans, and some of them live in the Alps. Analyze it. There are different kinds of bread, different steps in the breadmaking process, different ways to make bread… Apply it. You could teach a course on breadmaking. You could explain Franco-German hostilities based on their bread preferences… Argue for or against it. Breadmaking is important because every culture has some kind of bread. Do they tie in to some theme of your reading or course? Draft a thesis statement in which you clearly and succinctly make an argument that addresses the prompt. If you find writing a thesis daunting, remember that whatever you draft now is not set in stone. Your thesis will change. As you do more research, reread your sources, and write your paper, you will learn more about the topic and your argument. For now, produce a "working thesis," meaning, a thesis that represents your thinking up to this point. Remember it will almost certainly change as you move through the writing process. For more information, visit our section about thesis statements. Once you have a thesis, you may find that you need to do more research targeted to your specific argument. Revisit some of the tips from Step 3. Identify your key sources both primary and secondary and annotate them. Now that you have a working thesis, look back over your sources and identify which ones are most critical to you--the ones you will be grappling with most directly in order to make your argument. Then, annotate them. Annotating sources means writing a paragraph that summarizes the main idea of the source as well as shows how you will use the source in your paper. Think about what the source does for you. Does it provide evidence in support of your argument? Does it offer a counterpoint that you can then refute, based on your research? Does it provide critical historical background that you need in order to make a point? For more information about annotating sources, visit our section on annotated bibliographies. While it might seem like this step creates more work for you by having to do more writing, it in fact serves two critical purposes: it helps you refine your working thesis by distilling exactly what your sources are saying, and it helps smooth your writing process. Having dissected your sources and articulated your ideas about them, you can more easily draw upon them when constructing your paper. Even if you do not have to do outside research and are limited to working with the readings you have done in class, annotating sources is still very useful. Write down exactly how a particular section in the textbook or in a primary source reader will contribute to your paper. Draft an outline of your paper. An outline is helpful in giving you a sense of the overall structure of your paper and how best to organize your ideas. You need to decide how to arrange your argument in a way that will make the most sense to your reader. Perhaps you decide that your argument is most clear when presented chronologically, or perhaps you find that it works best with a thematic approach. There is no one right way to organize a history paper; it depends entirely on the prompt, on your sources, and on what you think would be most clear to someone reading it. An effective outline includes the following components: the research question from the prompt that you wrote down in Step 1 , your working thesis, the main idea of each body paragraph, and the evidence from both primary and secondary sources you will use to support each body paragraph. Be as detailed as you can when putting together your outline. Third, your essay should take your reader by the hand so to speak and guide him or her through the process of thought leading to the conclusions you want your reader to draw. You should assume that your reader is intelligent but does not necessarily know the material you are presenting. Thus, if certain facts are critical to an essay, you must present them as such, and you cannot assume that the reader already knows them. Fourth, to convince your reader that your thesis is correct, you must support your point of view with evidence. Use quotations and examples from your readings and from lectures to prove your points. You must, however, consider all evidence, even the evidence which might, at first glance, seem to disprove your argument: you must explain why awkward or contradictory evidence does not, in fact, undermine your conclusions. If you cannot provide such an explanation, then you must modify your thesis. It is never acceptable to avoid unpleasant evidence by simply ignoring it. Basic Structure 1. An essay must have an introductory paragraph that lets your reader know what your thesis is and what the main points of your argument will be. An essay must also have a conclusion at least a paragraph in length that sums up its most important arguments. In short, over the course of your essay, you must tell readers what you are going to say, say it, and then tell them what you have said. Paragraphs are the building blocks of an essay. Each paragraph should contain a single general idea or topic, along with accompanying explanations and evidence relevant to it. Each paragraph, moreover, has a topic sentence usually the first sentence that tells the reader what the paragraph is about. Do not write one-, two-, or three-sentence paragraphs. Paragraphs have topics, introductory sentences, evidence, and conclusions. Do not write two- or three-page paragraphs. A paragraph generally explores a single idea, rather than a dozen. Before you end a discussion of one major topic and begin another, it is important to summarize your findings and analyze their importance for your thesis. It is also necessary to write a transition to alert your reader that you have begun a new topic. Thus, if your thesis is hinged on three major points, you should spend a couple of pages on each point and write a transition paragraph between each section. Formal Written English 1.

Quoted material needs to be introduced. You cannot simply throw in a quotation without introducing it in a way that allows your reader to see what it is doing there i. Indent and single-space long quotations generally anything more than three lines. When you have indented a quotation, do not use quotation marks. The indentation, itself, marks this as a quotation.

Check all quotations carefully against the text. The price of using someone else's words to prove your point is quoting them accurately! Punctuation and Capitalization 1. The second sentence does not take a comma, because the last clause cannot stand on its own as a sentence.

All punctuation marks go inside quotation marks. Avoid exclamation points!!!!! There is a difference between a hyphen - and an em dash —. A hyphen joins two words, usually those in an adjectival phrase. An em dash represents a break in thought or a writing for emphasis; it is usually typed as two hyphens. Either underline or italicize all book titles and foreign words. Titles such as "king," "bishop," "senator," and "prime minister," essay attached to a personal name, should be capitalized e.

They should not, however, be capitalized if they are used as nouns unattached to personal names e. Your papers are written in English, not German. Unlike German, English does not capitalize nouns as a matter of course. Words are not capitalized simply because they represent something important. The rule is: When in doubt, do not use capitals.

If you think of writing as a process and break it down into smaller steps, you will find that paper-writing is manageable, less daunting, and even enjoyable. Writing a history paper is your opportunity to do the real work of historians, to roll up your sleeves and dig deep into the past. What is a history paper? History papers are driven by arguments.

In a history class, even if you are not help a paper based on outside research, you are still writing a paper that requires some form of argument. For mock health promotion program for a community essay, suppose your professor has asked you to write a paper discussing the differences between colonial New England and colonial Virginia.

It might seem like this paper is straightforward and does not require an argument, that it is simply a matter of finding the "right answer. You might argue that the main differences between colonial New England and Virginia were grounded in contrasting visions of colonization. Or you might argue that the differences resulted from accidents of geography or from extant alliances between regional Indian groups.

Or you might make an argument that draws on all of these factors. Regardless, when you make these types of assertions, you are making an argument that requires historical evidence.

Help writing essays on history

Any history paper you write will be driven by an argument demanding evidence from sources. History writing assignments can vary widely--and you should always follow your professor's writing instructions--but the following steps are designed to help no matter what kind of history paper you are writing.

Remember that the staff of the History Writing Center is here to assist you at any stage of the writing process. Make sure you know what the paper prompt is asking. Sometimes professors distribute prompts with several sub-questions surrounding the main question they want you to write about.

The sub-questions are designed to help you think about the topic. They offer ideas you might consider, but they are not, usually, the key essay or questions you need to answer in your paper. Make sure you distinguish the key questions from the sub-questions. Otherwise, your paper may sound like a laundry easy essay guide word count game of short-answer essays rather than a cohesive argument.

A helpful way to hone in on the key question is to look for action verbs, such as "analyze" or "investigate" or "formulate. Then, carefully consider what you are being asked to do. Write out the key question at the top of your draft and return to it often, using it to guide you in the writing process. Also, be sure that you are responding to every part of the prompt.

Prompts will often have several questions you need to address in your paper. If you do not cover all aspects, then you are not responding fully to the assignment. For more information, visit our section, "Understanding Paper Prompts. Brainstorm possible arguments and responses. Before you even start researching or history, take a few minutes to consider what you already know about the topic.