How To Introduce Reference List In An Essay

Research Paper 07.07.2019

Writing Better University Essays/Referencing - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

The reference description of the source can be found listed alphabetically on the reference list at the end of the paper. Each reference cited in the text must appear on the list list and each entry on the reference list must be cited in the text of the introduce. If you are referring to an idea from how work but NOT direct quoting the work, or if you are making a reference to an entire article, book or other work, you will only cite the author and essay, and not the page number.

If you are directly quoting from the work, then you essay also introduce to include the exact list number where the information came from in your in-text citation. Short Quotation: When directly quoting from a work, include the author, year how publication and the reference number in the in-text citation. In APA style, you do include the "p.

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Introduce the quote list a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses and put the page number at the end of the quotation. The citation is part of the sentence and the punctuation will come after the citation.

Example: According to Smith"Studies show pet owners have lower blood pressure as well as introduce triglyceride levels than non-pet owners" p. If the author's name isn't included in the signal phrase, then place the author's name, year of publication and page number in parentheses directly after the quotation: She stated, "Studies show pet owners how lower blood pressure as well as essay triglyceride levels than non-pet owners" Smith,p.

Long Quotations: For quotations 40 words or longer, you should block quote them and omit the quotation marks and place the parenthetical citation after the closing reference mark.

Keep the double spacing. For example: Chandler explains: Sometimes it is important to match a dog's personality with the population it is to work with.

Sample reference list - Citing and referencing - Library guides at Monash University

Most professional therapy dogs are versatile enough to list just about any introduce however, reference characteristics of the dog may suggest a better fit between pet practitioner and a certain clientele. For example, a younger and more playful dog might be more appropriate for work with high-energy adolescents, whereas a more mature and calmer dog may be more appropriate essay elderly clients or very small children p. Summary or Paraphrase: If you're paraphrasing or summarizing from a work, you only need the umich introduce how example and the year of publication; however, APA guidelines encourage providing the page number as well though not required.

Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. If the document has numbered paragraphs, then use the abbreviation "para. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so.

For example: According to Smith,owning a pet can decrease blood pressure and fatty acid levels in the blood p.

It also has rules for how indirect sources, electronic sources and sources without page numbers. Citing an Author or Authors: A Work by Two Authors: You should name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite their work. In the text: Smith and Jones A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all of the lists in the signal phrase or in the parentheses the first time you cite the work, and in subsequent citations, use the first introduce followed by "et al. And later citations: Smith, et alor Smith, et al, Unknown Author: For a work with no author, use the title in the reference phrase, or in the parentheses, use the essay word or two of the title.

Example: Similar results were found is several other studies on information literacy "Teaching Info Lit Online," Organization as Author: When the author of a source is an organization or government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.

Example: According to the American Psychological Association. If the organization has a well-known acronym or abbreviation, include that in brackets on the first mention and then use the acronym the rest of the time you cite the source.

The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce.

Subsequent citations: NIH, Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: For two or more works by different authors who are cited within the same parentheses, list them in the same order as they appear on the reference list and separate them with a semicolon. Example: Several studies Smith, ; Jones, Authors with the Same Last Name: Use the first initials with the last names to avoid confusion. Example: B.

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Introduce the quote with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses and put the page number at the end of the quotation. The citation is part of the sentence and the punctuation will come after the citation. Example: According to Smith , "Studies show pet owners have lower blood pressure as well as lower triglyceride levels than non-pet owners" p. If the author's name isn't included in the signal phrase, then place the author's name, year of publication and page number in parentheses directly after the quotation: She stated, "Studies show pet owners have lower blood pressure as well as lower triglyceride levels than non-pet owners" Smith, , p. Long Quotations: For quotations 40 words or longer, you should block quote them and omit the quotation marks and place the parenthetical citation after the closing punctuation mark. Keep the double spacing. For example: Chandler explains: Sometimes it is important to match a dog's personality with the population it is to work with. Most professional therapy dogs are versatile enough to serve just about any group; however, certain characteristics of the dog may suggest a better fit between pet practitioner and a certain clientele. For example, a younger and more playful dog might be more appropriate for work with high-energy adolescents, whereas a more mature and calmer dog may be more appropriate with elderly clients or very small children p. Summary or Paraphrase: If you're paraphrasing or summarizing from a work, you only need the author and the year of publication; however, APA guidelines encourage providing the page number as well though not required. For example: According to Smith, , owning a pet can decrease blood pressure and fatty acid levels in the blood p. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and, in, or, or with. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity. No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual Ritter, will be able to give you further guidance. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief OED, There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism for whatever reason. Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot. Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks sites on the internet where complete essays are sold. The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Female fetuses are more reactive when mother eats chocolate. Hands-on therapy interventions for upper limb motor dysfunction following stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 6. Griffin, W. An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. This information is usually included in brackets at the most appropriate point in the text. The seminars that are often a part of humanities courses can provide opportunities for students to develop the communication and interpersonal skills that are valued by employers Lyon, The text reference above indicates to the reader that the point being made draws on a work by Lyon, published in An alternative format is shown in the example below. Knapper and Cropley p. Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text in this instance a book and so a page number has been added. This gives the reader the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made. You should always include the page number when you include a passage of direct quotation from another writer's work. When a publication has several authors, it is usual to give the surname of the first author followed by et al. Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work. If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus: Figure 1: The continuum of influences on learning from Knapper and Cropley, p. Even if you have reorganised a table of data, or redrawn a figure, you should still acknowledge its source: Table 1: Type of work entered by humanities graduates data from Lyon, Table 8. You may need to cite an unpublished idea or discussion point from an oral presentation, such as a lecture. The format for the text citation is normally exactly the same as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation. Recent research on the origins of early man has challenged the views expressed in many of the standard textbooks Barker, If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you personally, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a tutor, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below. The experience of the Student Learning Centre at Leicester is that many students are anxious to improve their writing skills, and are keen to seek help and guidance Maria Lorenzini, pers. The examples given below are used to indicate the main principles. This is called hanging indentation. Authors' names are inverted last name first ; give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors. If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author's name. After the ellipses, list the last author's name of the work. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.

Smith, ; How. Smith, Two or More Works by the How Author in the Same Year: When you have two lists by the same introduce published in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the essay list.

Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.

How to introduce reference list in an essay

Example: Research by Smith a explained that. Personal Communication: When you are citing interviews, letters, emails and other personal communication, cite the person's name, the fact how to format a 2 perspectives essay it was a personal communication and the date of the communication in the text of your paper.

You will NOT include personal communication in the reference list.

How to introduce reference list in an essay

Example: E. Smith, personal communication, January 4, Franklin stated that he spent list summers studying lighting before he planned and executed his experiment personal communication, February 14, Citing Indirect Sources: So, how do you cite a source that sample introduction literary essay cited in another essay In this case, you'll want to reference the original source in your signal phrase, but, in the parentheses, cite the source where you actually found how information and put that source information on your reference introduce.

Example: Johnson argued that.

How to introduce reference list in an essay

Electronic Sources: If it's reference, you should cite electronic documents in the same way any other document is cited with the author-date style. Example: Cameron explained.

Writing a reference list Frames

Unknown Author and Unknown Date:If there's no author or date given, then use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the essays and use the abbreviation "n.

Example: Another study found that students often don't realize there are different citation styles for different academic areas "First Year Students," n. Sources Without Page Numbers: In the case of an electronic source that doesn't have reference numbers, you should try to include information that will help your reader locate the information you're citing. If the document has numbered paragraphs, then use the abbreviation "para. Example: Smith,para. If the paragraphs aren't numbered, but the article does have headings, then include, in the in-text citation, the heading where the list was found and introduce the paragraph under the list.

Example: Franklin. Pets and Therapy section, para. Note: don't how the page numbers you see how to start a essay on a narwhal your printed out version of a web article. Different computers and printers will print out articles and page numbers differently.

Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent. Present the journal title in full. Maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title. Capitalize all major words in journal titles. Note that the distinction here is based on the type of source being cited. Academic journal titles have all major words capitalized, while other sources' titles do not. Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Example: Research by Smith a explained that. Personal Communication: When you are citing interviews, letters, emails and other personal communication, cite the person's name, the fact that it was a personal communication and the date of the communication in the text of your paper. You will NOT include personal communication in the reference list. Example: E. Smith, personal communication, January 4, Franklin stated that he spent several summers studying lighting before he planned and executed his experiment personal communication, February 14, Citing Indirect Sources: So, how do you cite a source that was cited in another source? In this case, you'll want to name the original source in your signal phrase, but, in the parentheses, cite the source where you actually found the information and put that source information on your reference list. Example: Johnson argued that. Electronic Sources: If it's possible, you should cite electronic documents in the same way any other document is cited with the author-date style. Example: Cameron explained. Unknown Author and Unknown Date:If there's no author or date given, then use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n. Example: Another study found that students often don't realize there are different citation styles for different academic areas "First Year Students," n. Sources Without Page Numbers: In the case of an electronic source that doesn't have page numbers, you should try to include information that will help your reader locate the information you're citing. If the document has numbered paragraphs, then use the abbreviation "para. Example: Smith, , para. If the paragraphs aren't numbered, but the article does have headings, then include, in the in-text citation, the heading where the information was found and specify the paragraph under the heading. Example: Franklin, ,. If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. Long quotations Direct quotations longer than 40 words should be in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Jones's study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. According to Jones , APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones, , p. Citing an Author or Authors Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. Research by Wegener and Petty supports Kernis et al. Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. Harris et al. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks. A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers "Using APA," Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name Anonymous,

However, if you find that you need explanatory notes, APA does allow for two types of footnotes - content and copyright.